U.S. History Outline: V. Jackson and the Age of the Common Man

<< Back to Outline index

Jackson and the common man
    First president to hold mass meetings
    Gave speeches to crowds (in the style of the Second Great Awakening)
    Voting restrictions finally abolished with Jackson's election
       Earlier elections had required property or money to vote
Thomas Door
    Formed People's Party (Doorites) in Rhode Island
    1840 - Drafted a new egalitarian constitution, proclaimed themselves new federal government
Presidential primaries
    1832 - Anti-Masons party held the first formal primary election
    Before this, caucuses of party elite selected the candidates

President Jackson
    Believed in states' rights and strong executive
    John C. Calhoun - Jackson's VP and his main opponent
       Calhoun's nullification doctrine - compromise to prevent secession
    Martin Van Buren - Encouraged the Jackson/Calhoun split, became Jackson's right-hand man

Peggy Eaton Affair
    Peggy had supposedly had affairs with Eaton and Jackson
    She married Eaton (Secretary of War), but other cabinet wives didn't accept her
    Jackson ordered federal staff to accept her, all complied but Calhoun
    Jackson/Calhoun split - Jackson turned support to Van Buren

Nullification crisis
    North was trying to slow western development
    South and West joined forces against North
    Nullification debates, South Carolina stopped collecting tariff
    Force Bill - Jackson forced Carolina to pay tariff
    Clay's Compromise
       South Carolina would repeal tariff nullification
       Congress would lower tariff
    South Carolina nullified Force Act (Just to have the final word)

Indian Removal
    Jackson vs. Indian tribes
    1831-2 - Black Hawk War
       Sauks fought over the treaty ceding land to the U.S.
       Sauks were defeated, last major Indian war
    1830 - Indian Removal Act - transport southern tribes to Oklahoma
    Five Civilized Tribes
       Cherokee, Creek, Chocktaw, Chicksaw, Seminole
       Farming tribes in the South that adopted White customs
    1834 - Indian Removal Act enacted with removal of Chocktaws
    1838 - Trail of Tears
       Some Cherokees fled to North Carolina reservation, but otherwise removal was complete
    1835 - Seminole War
       Osceola (Seminole chief) stabbed removal treaty with a knife
       Most Seminoles captured and transfered by 1842
    Indian removal opened up land for Southern planting

War on the National Bank
    Jackson had vendetta against Nicholas Biddle, head of National Bank
    Daniel Webster and Henry Clay supported bank
    1832 - National Bank's charter expired
       Congress renewed the charter
       Jackson vetoed the renewal
    Pet Banks
       National Bank still operated for a few years after 1832, but Jackson removed federal funds
       Jackson transfered federal funds to state banks run by Jackson and supporters
       Jackson fired a few Secretaries of Treasury over the removal
       Finally, Sec. of Treasury Roger Taney agreed to remove federal funds to pet banks
       Jackson later made Taney Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
       National Bank collapsed from loss of federal funds

Election of 1832
    Clay ran against Jackson on the National Bank issue, but lost
    Clay's loss was partly because third party candidates stole votes

Political parties of the Jacksonian period
    Two main parties
          Jacksonians - favored common man
          Mainly Westerners and rural Southerners
          Favored businesses
          Mainly New Englanders and wealthy Southerners
          Major Whig leaders - Clay, Webster, Calhoun
             Represented middle, New England, and rich South, respectively
             No clear presidental candidate
                Webster was an alcoholic, Clay and Calhoun lacked broad appeal
                Clay ran and lost three times
       Both parties favored economic expansion
    Third parties
          Right-wing Whigs, conspiracy theorists
          Anti-immigrant (German and Irish main immigrants at this time)

Election of 1836
    Martin Van Buren (Dem.) vs. Henry Clay, Hugh Lawson White, William Henry Harrison (all Whigs)
    Martin Van Buren won
    Whig vote split between three candidates
    Van Buren not a great speaker, but a great manipulator, also had Jackson's support

Panic of 1837
    Partly caused by destruction of National Bank
    Briefly held off by surplus from sale of western lands
Specie circular
    Issued by Jackson
    Said that government land could only be bought with specie
    Stopped land sales
    Brought economy to a standstill
1840 - U.S. Treasury Department created to hold federal money

Near-war with Canada (late 1830s)
    Part of Canada rebelled against Commonwealth government
    Rebels used U.S. ships to run guns
    British attacked one such ship, Caroline
       An American was killed
       U.S. tried British soldier for murder
       New York jury acquitted him
Aroostook War
    Prompted by Caroline incident and lumberjack fight

Election of 1840
    Martin Van Buren (Dem.) vs. William Henry Harrison (Whig)
    Van Buren was hated by this time, Harrison won
    Log Cabin and Hard Cider campaign
       Van Buren portrayed as an aristocrat, Harrison as a simple rural man
       Actually, Harrison was from a rich plantation family

Vp John Tyler
    Southerner, former Jacksonian
    Took over when William Henry Harrison died months after the election
    Raised tariffs
    Did not recharter U.S. Bank
       Whole cabinet resigned over bank issue
       Tyler replaced them with Jacksonians
    Pro-states' rights, appointed Calhoun to cabinet
    1842 - opened U.S.-China trade, which helped economy

    U.S. population quadrupled between 1800 and 1840
    Immigration increased in 1830s, mostlty Irish and German
       Irish settled mainly in cities, Germans in West
    Before 1820, turnpikes were main transport routes
    After 1820, canals and steamboats were main transport routes
       Erie Canal (1825)
          Connected Albany, NY to Lake Ontario
          Transport from New York to Ohio Valley and Chicago
    Railroads became major in 1840s, linked with canals
       All of North and Northwestern states linked by 1850
       Created strong North-Northwest ties
       British and French built and owned early American railroads
    1839 - vulcanized rubber (Goodyear)
    1844 - telegraph (Samuel Morse), more widely used in North than South
    1846 - rotary printing press (Richard Hoe)
    1846 - sewing machine (Elias Howe)
    1830s - more companies - stock companies
    1830s - factory system
       Interchangeable parts, steam-engine-powered machines
       Lowell, Massachusetts textile mills
    U.S. became a manufacturing center - textiles, shoes, guns, iron, tools
       First formed among textile women
       1842 - Commonwealth v. Hunt declared unions legal
       Unions formed for cattle ranchers, textile workers, stonecutters
    More urban population, individualism
    Fewer extended families - nuclear family became more important
    "Cult of domesticity" stressed nuclear family, defined male/female roles
    1837 - Mt. Holyoke, first women's college founded
    American upper class developed, led to concern for lower class, reform movements
    Frontier - "Safety valve", less social unrest

Southern Life
    Economy organized around cash crop agriculture
       1840s - mechanical reaper invented (Cyrus McCormic)
       Mechanized farming
       Cotton was primary crop - more profitable than industry
       Cotton production and slave ownership increased from 1820s to 1860s
       Aristocratic plantation society, very little middle class
       Few cities, mostly widespread farms
       Little contact between neighbors
       Little need for railroads, river transport was available to main ports
    Slavery less oppressive before 1800, became increasingly dehumanizing 1800-1860s
    Slaves couldn't own property, be educated, or testify in court
    Slave owners not legally responsible for killing or injuring slaves
    In cities, slaves worked menial/factory jobs
       Better hours and lifestyle than that of plantation slaves
As number of free blacks increased, white Southerners feared rebellion
    Passed laws to oppress blacks in general
    Slave revolts
       1800 - Richmond, VA, led by Gabriel Prosser
       1822 - Charlestown, SC, led by Denmark Vessey
       1831 - Southern VA, let by Nat Turner
       Nat Turner's insurrection was the only slave revolt that wasn't put down before it started

Reform movements
    Abolitionism, women's movements, aid for poor, better treatment for insane
    Socialist communities
       Fourier Experiment, Owen's city of "New Harmony"
       Complete failures
    Mormons - Joseph Smith
       Started in New York, moved west
       1844 - Smith arrested for treason and killed by a mob
       Brigham Young - moved Mormon community to Utah
       1817 - American Colonization Society
          Back-to-Africa movement, bought African land and formed Liberia
          Not a very feasible plan
       William Lloyd Garrison
          Wrote for abolitionist paper and founded "The Liberator"
          Wrote about slavery from Blacks' point of view
          Believed in abolition and not gradual emancipation
          Lost support when he started calling for overthrow of the government
       Frederick Douglass
          Escaped slavery 1838
          Joined abolitionists and started "North Star"
       Henry Beecher - preacher, Harriet Beacher Stowe's father
       Elija Lovejoy - martyr
       Prigg v. Pennsylvania
          Ruled states were not required to assist each other in return of slaves
          Northern states began passing laws that made escaped slaves free
       Liberty/Free-Soil Party - run by James Birney
       Uncle Tom's Cabin (1851) by Harriet Beecher Stowe

Protections for slavery
    States' rights
       With states' rights, federal government could not outlaw slavery
    Westward expansion
       Expansion of slavery into western states gave slave states more power

Westward expansion
    John L. O'Sullivan - "Manifest Destiny"
       Henry Clay opposed manifest destiny, felt it would bring out North-South conflicts

Election of 1844
    Henry Clay (Whig) vs. James Polk (Democratic-Republican) vs. James Birney (Liberty)
    Polk believed in manifest destiny, wanted to annex Texas and Oregon
    James Birney ran on anti-slavery platform, stole votes from Clay

    Mexican government invited Americans to settle Texas
    Mexico wanted a buffer between their land and the U.S.
    Americans clashed with Mexican government, tried to become independent
    Mexico banned further immigration (unsuccessfully)
    Santa Ana
       Dictator of Mexico, established control over Texas
       Planned to intimidate the Texans into submission
    Stephen Austin
       Leader of the Texas immigrants
       His arrest led to guerilla fighting
    1863 - Texas declared independence, Santa Ana invaded
    Battle of the Alamo - Texans wiped out
    Goldiad - Texans surrendered, Santa Ana had them executed
    Battle of San Jacinto
       Texas army led by Sam Houston wiped out Mexican army
       Santa Ana recognized Texan independence, Mexican government did not
    Texas applied for annexation to the U.S.
       At first, U.S. worried about angering Mexico
       Then U.S. worried whether to make Texas slave state or free
    1845 - Tyler annexed Texas just before leaving office
    1818 - Joint occupancy (Britain/U.S.) of Oregon
    1820s and 30s - American settlers moved into Oregon
       1840s - American settlers formed the majority in Oregon
    Polk wanted to annex Oregon
       Wanted to show Britain that U.S. was serious about expansion
       (Mexican-American war cause)
    54-40 or Fight!
       Debate over where to draw line between Canada and Oregon
       1846 - British offered to compromise at 49 degrees latitude, Congress agreed

Next: The Mexican-American War >>

AP* U.S. History
About the Test
Testing Tips

AP* Subjects
U.S. History

*AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, Which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

apstudent.com | Forums | Site FAQ | Email