U.S. History Outline: III. The Revolutionary War

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Two main conflicts for colonies:
    Achive home rule
    Decide who would rule at home

After Lexington & Concord battles, King George declared colonies in rebellion
Olive Branch Petition
    Colonies offered to be loyal if Crown fixed grievances
    Britain sent no reply
British hired German troops - Hessians
Britain built up Boston blockade
"Common Sense" pamphlet
    Influenced Americans towards independence
    Spoke against monarchy

July 2, 1776 - Motion of Virginia
    Virginia moved that colonies declare themselves independent
July 4, 1776 - Declaration of Independence
    Justified the Revolution
Nov. 1777 - Articles of Confederation

Foreign military experts aided the Colonials:
    Baron von Steuben
    Marquis de Lafayette
France aided colonies with money and weapons
    France hoped a colonial victory would help them regain Canada

Spring 1776 - Washington sent to Boston to break blockade
    Continental army about one-third the size of British army
Benedict Arnold - Siege of Quebec
Ethan Allen
    Took Ft. Ticonderoga and Crown Point
    Prevented British attack down Hudson River to New York
    Stole cannons, which Washington took to Boston
British evacuated Boston, but took New York
    New York was a haven for Loyalists
    Became center of British operations
Gen. Howe (British) chased Washington around New England until winter
Battle of Saratoga - Gen. Bergoyne (British) defeated
Gen. Howe turned over command to George Clinton
Winter 1776 - Washington crossed Delaware River
Dec. 26, 1776 - Washington launched surprise attack on British
    Day after Christmas, British were still too drunk to fight well
1777 - British realized they could not acheive quick victory
    New plan - split colonies in half from New York
1777 - Adams and Franklin sought and received more aid from France

1778 - British switched their attention to the South
    British expected to find Loyalists in South, but didn't
    Cornwallis and Clinton (British) vs. Nathaniel Green (Continental)
    British spent most of their time wandering around the South looking for the Continental Army
Dec. 1778 - British captured Savannah
1780 - British captured Charleston
    Clinton went back to New York
    Cornwallis marched to Virginia, headed towards New York
Yorktown - Cornwallis became trapped there
    Cornwallis decided to dig in and wait for naval reinforcement
    French navy (lead by DeGrasse) blocked his escape
Oct. 19, 1781 - Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown

Franklin, Adams, and John Jay in France
    France wanted Canada and Gibraltar for Spain
    Continental delegates left discussion
    France received only Guadelupe from the Revolutionary War
Treaty of Paris (1783)
    Recognized colonies' independence
    Granted colonies territory from Canada to Florida, Atlantic Ocean to Mississippi River
    No reparations (penalties) for war
Aftermath of Revolutionary War
    American Indians lost all support from British
    Loyalists were transported to Nova Scotia, where many died
    Most of America's ruling class (landed elite, associated with Crown) left colonies
    Tradesmen and professionals (mostly lawyers) moved into leadership roles
    First stirring of abolitionism and suffrage
    First move towards manufacturing/industry within the colonies

State governments created
    Most had weak executive branch, religious freedom
    Property was required to vote
Massachusetts - first constitution with direct election of governor
Some states outlawed slavery (Pennsylvania and Massachusetts)
Articles of Confederation
    Federal government controlled war and foreign policy and issued money
    Federal government could not regulate trade, draft troops, or levy taxes
    Each state had 1 vote in government, 9 had to agree for majority

Ohio Valley - an Articles of Confederation success
    Claimed by New York, Massachusetts, and Virginia
    Federal government convinced all three to give up their claims
    States agreed not to claim land west of the Appalachians
    Under Articles of Confed., federal government controlled land in Ohio Valley
Northwest Ordinance
    Federal government carved up Ohio Valley, planned development, sold land
Criteria for statehood - population of 60,000 and a petition

Indian removal program in the Appalachians
    Creek War (1790)
    Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794)
       Anthony Wayne defeated Indian coalition

Shay's Rebellion - an Articles of Confederation failure
    1786 - Shay wanted tax and debt relief, more money
    Federal government had trouble raising army to put down rebellion
    1787 - Shay defeated in battle, but some of his demands were enacted
    Washington felt that country needed a new government

Annapolis Convention
    Five states attended
    Recommended that all states meet and find ways to improve Articles of Confed.
    Washington supported motion
Constitutional Convention (May - Sept. 1787)
    All states except Rhode Island attended
    Virginia Plan vs. New Jersey Plan
    Great Compromise, 3/5 Clause
    Bill of Rights was discussed but not included in final draft
    Short terms for House of Rep. members (2 years), long terms for Senate (6 years), President's term in the middle (4 years)
Ratification Conventions (1788)
    Constitution sent out to each state to ratify
    Conventions were held by the people of the state, not the state legislatures
Antifederalists opposed the Constitution
    Antifeds in New York and Virginia opposed it
    Federalists promised to add a Bill of Rights to get ratification
Rhode Island was last state to ratify (only 9 states needed for majority)
12 Amendments passed (only 10 ratified) - Bill of Rights

Judiciary Act of 1789 - created federal judiciary
Cabinet created - Sec. of State, Sec. of War, Sec. of Treasury, Attorney General, Postmaster

Bond issue - how to pay off war debt
    Question was whether to repay bonds at face value
    Hamilton wanted bonds paid at face value
    Hamilton - leader of Federalists, also favored tariffs, excise tax on whiskey
Whiskey Rebellion
    Western farmers in Penn. refused to pay whiskey tax
    Washington led militia to put down rebellion
    Much easier to put down than Shay's rebellion, thanks to Constitution giving federal government more power

New states - Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee

Foreign affairs under Washington
    French-English war - U.S. remained neutral
    Jay's Treaty
       Took no action against British attacks on neutral American ships
       Very unpopular because it was amicable to England
    Pickney's Treaty (1795, with Spain)
       Gave U.S. transport rights on Mississippi River
       Allowed U.S. to store goods in New Orleans

Election of 1796
    Southern Federalists didn't support Hamilton, Northern Federalists didn't support Pickney
    John Adams (Federalist) elected

Downfall of Federalists
    Adam's repressive laws
       Alien Act - discouraged immigration
       Sedition Act - got a few news reporters arrested
    XYZ Affair
       U.S. Ambassador to France turned away
       France would only talk to him in exchange for bribes
    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
       Prompted by Alien and Sedition Acts
       Said that states could nullify federal laws
    Fights in Congress over Alien and Sedition Acts, other partisan issues
       "Tongs incident" - a Federalist congressman from Connecticut and an Antifederalist from Vermont attacked each other with cane and fireplace tongs during a heated debate

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