U.S. History Outline: IV. The Jeffersonians

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Public education improved after Revolutionary War
    1780-90 - educational opportunities for women and American Indians expanded
    By 1800 there were 22 public colleges
    Benjamin Rush - founded first medical school, taught sanitation
Early American cultural movements
    Hartford Wits - poets
       Joel Barlow - "The Columbiad"
    Mason Weems, Life of Washington - fictionalized biography
    Second Great Awakening
       Congregational Church was breaking up, new churches emerged
       Unitarian and Universalism
          Started in Kentucky in 1801, based on Methodism, Baptism
          Completely democratic church system - open to Indians, Blacks, women
          Salvation through good works, tolerance of all Protestant sects
          Eventually replaced by factory system
       Neolin and Handsome Lake
          Native American preachers
          Handsome Lake encouraged Indians to adopt white way of life
Early American industrial advancements
    Cotton gin - made low-grade cotton and slave labor viable
    Oliver Evans - steam engine and auto flour mill
    Lancaster Pike (1818) - road across Pennsylvania
    Fulton & Livingston - steamboat
    Merchant marines took over French and English shipping lanes
    Growth of cities
    Philadelphia was largest city in U.S.
       Next largest were New York, Baltimore, Boston, and Charleston
    Pierre L'enfant - D.C. architect

Election of 1800 ("Revolution of 1800")
    Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) vs. Burr (D-R) vs. Adams (Federalist)
    Jefferson and Burr tied, Jefferson won in House of Representatives vote

Jefferson's administration
    Spoils system - Jefferson fired Federalist office holders and replaced them
    Jefferson scaled down federal government, armed forces, judiciary
    Barbary War
       Sultan at Tripoli cut down U.S. flag to provoke U.S.
       War was never declared, but some skirmishes
       Barbary reduced bribe rates and U.S. agreed to pay
    Impeachment of Samuel Chase - politically motivated
    Toussaint L'Ouverture - led slave revolt in Santo Domingo
       Soured Napoleon on colonies
       Prompted sale of Lousiana to U.S. for $15,000,000
          Louisiana became first Louisiana Purchase state
          Exploration - Lewis & Clark to Washington state, Pike in the southwest
    Spain ended Pickney Treaty, forbade U.S. to enter New Orleans
       U.S. fleet threatened New Orleans

Essex Junto - extreme Federalists
    Lead by Aaron Burr (Jefferson's vice president)
    Wanted New England to secede (1805)
Hamilton-Burr duel
    Burr ran for New York governor and lost, blamed Hamilton for spreading bad PR
    1804 - Burr shot Hamilton in duel, fled, and joined mercenaries
    Burr claimed he was going to conquer Mexico
    U.S. thought he was going to lead a secession movement in the territories
    1806 - Burr tried for treason and aquitted

French/English War became Napoleonic Wars
    1805 - Trafalgar - England wiped out French fleet
    1806 - Napoleon's Continental System
       Closed continental Europe to all ships that had docked in England
    1807 - Blockade by England
       Only ships that had docked in England could trade in Europe
    Chesapeake-Leopard incident
       Chesapeake refused to allow British to board (because of impressment)
       Leopard opened fire
       U.S. expelled all British ships from U.S. waters
       Britain apologized for the incident
    1807 - Embargo, Enforcement Act
       No ships could leave U.S.
    1809 - Non-intercourse Act
       Prohibited trade with France and England
    1810 - Macon's Bill No. 2
       U.S. would resume trade with whichever nation lifted its restrictions first
       France lifted restrictions, and U.S.-French trade resumed
    1811 - Embargo against England only

    William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana
       Weakened tribes, looked to England and Spain for aid
    The Prophet - preacher, Tecumseh - Shawnee chief
       Wanted to unite tribes
    1811 - Harrison defeated Indians at Tippecanoe

War movement
    War with England would be excuse to annex Florida from Spain, Englands ally
    Ambitious war supporters hoped to annex Canada as well
War Hawks - Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun
1810 - U.S. siezed western Florida and annexed it
War of 1812
    1812 - U.S. invasion to Canada defeated
    U.S. naval victories on Great Lakes
    Tecumseh defeated U.S. in Illinois
    1813 - Tecumseh killed at the Battle of Thames
    1814 - Jackson defeated southern Indians at Battle of Horseshoe Bend
    British burned Washington, D.C. and raided costal towns
    1814 - Jackson seized Florida, U.S. turned back British invasion of New York
    1815 - Battle of New Orleans
    Dec. 1814 - Hartford Convention
       Discussed secession, proposed amendments, right of nullification
       Destroyed Federalists
    1814 - Treaty of Ghent
       Signed by John Q. Adams, Henry Clay, Albert Galatin
       Return to status quo
1815 - Treaty gave U.S. right to trade freely in British empire
1817 - Rush-Bagot Treaty
    Disarmed Great Lakes, later expanded into unarmed U.S./Canadan border
War of 1812 opened up West to settlement, but ended hope of conquering Canada or Florida

Post-war economic developments
    1819 - Brief post-war depression caused by overproduction
    War increased textile mills in New England, cotton production in South
    1816 - Many tariffs passed to protect U.S. production
    Canal and road systems expanded

Great Migration
    From New England to Ohio Valley
    From South to Mississippi, Louisiana, and Missouri
    Four new states - Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, and Alabama
1821 - Mexico won independence from Spain, weaker government
    American fur trappers moved into southwest
Stephen Long
    Explored middle of Louisiana Purchase (Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado)
    Claimed land was worthless - "Great American Desert"

Era of Good Feelings
    Post-war economic growth and prosperity
    Only one political party (Republican)
James Madison (president 1808 - 1816)
    Made John Q. Adams his Secretary of State
    Included different regions/parties in his staff
James Monroe (president 1816 - 1824, kept John Q. Adams as Sec. of State)
    1818 - Spain had Seminoles raid U.S.
       John Q. Adams ordered Jackson to seize Spanish forts in North Florida
       Convinced Spanish they could not defend Florida
    1819 - Adams-Onis Treaty
       Spain gave Florida to U.S.
       U.S. gave up claims to Texas to Spain
1819 Depression ended Era of Good Feelings
    Blamed on banks, but was really caused by overproduction

1819 - Missouri controversy
    Missouri had slaves, but Northerners opposed adding Missouri as a slave state
    Federalists used controversy as an issue to gain power
    Rufus King (Federalist) ran against Madison
    Issue resolved when Maine applied for statehood as a free state
1820 - Missouri Compromise
    Missouri and Maine both became states
    Southern border of Missouri would be cut-off line for slavery

Monroe Doctrine
    Many Latin American countries were declaring independence
    U.S. feared European nations would move in and take over the new democracies
    1823 - France authorized to invade Spain and take over to end civil war
       U.S. feared France would also take over Spanish colonies
    Monroe Doctrine
       Attempts by Europe to interfere in Western Hemisphere would be taken as threat to the U.S.
       At the time, mostly just a show of nationalism

Whig Party formed from remains of Federalist Party

Election of 1824 - John Q. Adams, Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, William Crawford
    Jackson got the most votes, but no one got a majority
    "Corrupt Bargain"
       Clay gave his support to Adams
       Adams made Clay his Secretary of State

American System (Henry Clay)
    Foster U.S. manufacturing with high tariffs
    Strengthen National Bank
    Direct federal financing of internal improvements (Madison had vetoed a bill for financing internal improvements with federal money)
Adams prevented from actually implementing American System
    Jackson's supporters filled Congress and voted against it
    Only the tariffs were enacted
1828 - Tariff of Abominations

Election of 1824 - Jackson won by a large margin

Next: Jackson and the Age of the Common Man >>

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