U.S. History Outline: VIII. The Civil War (1861-1865)

<< Back to Outline index

Major change caused by Civil War - states lost individual identities & became one nation economically, politically, & socially

South had initial advantage, but North had long-term advantage

Congress without the South
    More efficient
    Passed national development plans
       Homestead Act (1862)
       Morral Act (1862)
          created public trust lands
          school land - land grant colleges
       Intercontinental railroad finished
    Financial development
       National Bank Act (1863)
          Created new central bank
          Made up of state banks holding federal deposits
       Income tax (1861)
       Paper money

Draft instituted March 1863
    First time the U.S. had used a draft
    Draft riots by poor, Irish

Lincoln called for 2-million-man army, wartime production, declared blockade of South
    Northern Democrats who denounced war
    (copperhead is a snake)
1862 - Lincoln suspended Writ of Habeus Corpus
    Allowed army to arrest civilians who interfered with war

Election of 1864
    Lincoln (Union Party) versus George McClellan (Northern Dem.)
    Union Party formed from pro-war factions of many parties
    McClellan was pro-peace
    Sherman captured Atlanta a month before election, making it clear North would win war

Emancipation Proclamation
    1861 - Confiscation Act
       Declared forfeit slaves of any individual who took up arms against Union
       Allowed Union army to seize plantations
    1862 - John C. Freemont's Emancipation Proclamation
       Slaves in areas controlled by Union army would be free
    Jan 1, 1863 - Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation
       Freed slaves in the 11 Confederate states
13th Amendment (1865)
    Made slavery illegal
14th Amendment (1868)
    Made former slaves citizens with full rights
    Barred Conferates from federal government
    Absolved the U.S. from the Confederacy's debts
15th Amendment (1870)
    Former slaves had full voting rights
Slavery not immediately abolished at state level

Women's movements
    U.S. Sanitary Commission
       Organized women to serve as nurses for Union army
       Created by Dorothea Dix
       Joined by Clara Barton & Susan B. Anthony
    Clara Barton - Red Cross
    Susan B. Anthony - women's suffrage

    Government of the Confederacy
       Jefferson Davis - President
       Alexander Stephens - VP
    South divided over question of secession
       Political elite favored secession
       People were not all as enthusiastic
       Enlistment problems led to Southern draft (1862)
    Confederacy was a weak national government
       Favored states' rights
       Some states failed to collect taxes or enforce draft

    War gave North an economic boom
    Blockade crippled Southern economy
    Food riots in South
    South had military equipment
       (Calhoun had used influence to move military outposts to South)

    Winfield Scott - first Union general
    Robert E. Lee - Confederate commander
    Winfield Scott didn't do much, Lincoln replaced him with George McClellan

First Phase of War
    1862 - Virginia campaigns launched by McClellan
       D.C. and Richmond were only across Potomac from each other
       McClellan wanted to seize Richmond
       1st Virginia campaign - Peninsular campaign
          McClellan sailed to Yorktown peninsula, marched toward Richmond
          Lee cut him off, they entrenched there
       2nd front - Battle of Bull Run
          Union army attacked from the north
          Stopped by "Stonewall" Jackson
       3rd front - Freemont
          Union army attacked from west
          Stopped by Jackson
       2nd Battle of Bull Run
          Direct attack from D.C. to Richmond
          Union lost again
    Fall of 1826
       South attacked D.C. from the northwest
       Stopped at Antietam (Jackson again)
       First major Union victor
       Union general - Burnside
       North pushed straight on towards Richmond, but were stopped at Battle of Fredricksburg
    May 1863
       Lee marched to Antietam, trying another northwest attack
       Entered Gettysburg and met Union army
    July 1863 - Battle of Gettysburg
       Decisive Union victory
       Stonewall Jackson killed
       Southern army retreated back to Confederacy

Second Phase of War
    Union decided to strangle South by stopping supplies
       Union needed to take Mississippi to cut off South from West
       South had forts all along Mississippi
    Grant (Union general in West) moved down Mississippi, taking major ports
    1862 - Grant took Ft. Henry & Ft. Shiloh on Ohio River
       More people died at Shiloh than had been killed in every U.S. war to date
       Grant got nickname "Unconditional Surrender"
    1862 - Union ironclads began to move up Mississippi, taking New Orleans
    June 1862 - Vicksburg attacked
       Sherman (Union army) attacked from north
       Farragut (Union ironclads) attacked from south
       Fortress at Vicksburg repelled both attacks
    Wilderness campaigns
       Northern guerilla troops slowly moved south through border states
    1862-3 - Siege of Vicksburg
       Vicksburg surrendered July 4, 1863
       Coincided with Gettysburg victory
    1863 - Pause in the war - both sides exhausted
       Draft riots in North, food riots in South
       South almost completely cut off from supplies
       South low on men, North insituted draft

Third Phase of War
    Ulysses S. Grant took control of Union army, set out to crush South
    Nov. 1863 - Grant marched southwest from Nashville, destroying everything in his path
    Sept. 1864 - "March to the sea"
       Sherman, Grant, Union army laid seige to Atlanta
       Sherman sent half of army to Savannah
       Cut a path of destruction through Georgia, cutting South in half
    May 1865 - Appomatox
       Grant returned to North and attempted another attack on Richmond
       Lee's forces blocked him but were finally pinned down
    April 9, 1865 - Lee surrendered to Grant

Next: Reconstruction >>

AP* U.S. History
About the Test
Testing Tips

AP* Subjects
U.S. History

*AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, Which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

apstudent.com | Forums | Site FAQ | Email