U.S. History Outline: II. English Involvement in the Colonies

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Colonies were left almost independent until 1690 (Restoration in England)

Colonial economics:
    Triangle Trade
       Caribbean (molasses)
       -> to colonies (rum)
       -> to Africa (slaves)
       -> Caribbean (molasses)
    Northern colonies economy:
       Shipbuilding, distilling, various industry, only small farming
    Southern colonies economy:
       Cash crops - tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton

Great Awakening (1730-40) - Methodism (John Wesley)
    Inspired by Moravians
    Sense of piety, but no Puritan elect
    Involved many different colonies working together

Glorious Revolution (in England)
    James II ousted, William & Mary took throne
    No children, so crown went to Hannovers: Anne, George I-III
    Brough imperialism, more control over colonies

Colonial government before war:
    1686-1692 - Dominion of New England
       Massachusetts & other New England colonies unified under Gov. Andros
       Ended when James II ousted
       Plymouth & Massachusetts combined
    1707 - Privy council given authority over colonial assemblies
    1754 - Albany Convention
       Proposal for unified government in colonies
       Only northern and middle colonies attended
       Would have combined some colonial independence with some federal control
       Never put into effect

Seven Year's War / French & Indian War
    Iroquois worried about English expansion into Ohio Valley, allied with French
    Phase I - little British involvement, colonials losing to Iroquois
       1754 - Ohio Valley (French & Iroquois vs. English)
       Fort Necessity (Washington & Virgina army) vs. Fort Dusquesne
          Washington's surrender
    Phase II - British involvement
       1756 - England allied with Prussia
       1757 - William Pitt became Sec. of State
          Brought war under British control
          Drafted colonials, sparking riots
    Phase III - war turned over to colonial legislatures (1758), colonials start winning
       1759 - James Wolfe captured Quebec, turning point in war
       1760 - French in North America surrendered
       1760 - George I took throne
       1763 - Treaty of Paris
          France lost Canada & territory E of Mississippi to British
          France lost New Orleans & territory W of Mississippi to Spain
          France lost some Caribbean islands to British

1763 - Colonists had own government & army, no longer felt British, Britain decided to bring colonies under federal control

1763 - Proclamation Line - no westward settlement

1763 - Navigation Acts
    Passed by William Pitt & George III
    Meant to tax colonies and increase British trade
    Sugar Act (1764)
       Enforced tax on molasses
       Created vice-admiralty courts
          British judges tried colonials
          No juries
       Made it illegal to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies
    Currency Act
       Outlawed paper colonial money
       Made colonies dependent on British money
    Stamp Act (1765, under Prime Minister Grenville)
       All legal documents had to be on special British paper
       Caused riots
    Mutiny Act (1765)
       Colonials had to provide housing & food for British troops in America
       Created standing army in colonies (there had never been a standing army in England)

When colonies protested acts, British repealed them but replaced them with similar acts
    Virginia Resolutions - Patrick Henry spoke against Stamp Act
    Stamp Act Congress (1765) - organized by James Otis
    Sons of Liberty
       Organized by James Otis
       Fomented riots
       Burned custom houses with the paper
    1766 - Parliament repealed Stamp Act, passed Declatory Act
    Declatory Act (1766)
       Declared Parliament had power to tax colonies
    New York Act (1767, under Prime Minister Charles Townshend)
       Disbanded NY colonial assembly
       Punishment because NY had not obeyed Mutiny Act

Townshend duties
    Taxed paper, lead, tea, paint (quasi-luxury items)

1768 - Boston Circular Letter urged colonies not to import goods taxed by Townshend duties
    New York, Boston, Philidelphia agreed to non-importation

1770 - Prime Minister Lord North repealed Townshend duties except for tea tax

March 1770 - Boston Massacre
    British soldiers worked cheap, taking jobs from colonials
    Colonials provoked soldiers
    Killing of colonials outraged colonies

Political theories
    Hobbs - need absolute leader to force people to be civilized
    Locke - contract theory of government

1772 - Gaspee Incident
    British customs ship ran aground
    British crew went ashore for help
    Colonials burned ship and sank it
    Colonials were tried in England

1773 - Tea Act
    Gave East India Co. monopoly
    Made it illegal to buy non-British tea
    Forced colonists to pay tea tax

Dec. 16, 1773 - Boston Tea Party - tea boycott

1774 - Coercive Acts
    Shut down Boston harbor
    Disbanded Boston assembly (it moved and restarted)
    Removed power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers

1774 - Quebec Act
    Allowed French-Canadians more self-government
    Gave Canada the Ohio Valley
    Recognized Roman-Catholic church
    Made colonists think the king wanted to impose Catholicism on colonies

1772 - Committee of Correspondance
    Started about Gaspee attackers
    Protest letters by colonists

Sept. 1774 - First Continental Congress
    Virginia supported Boston against Coercive Acts
    Concern about how Britain had dissolved NY, Boston, & Virginia assemblies
    Rejected plan for unified colonial government (Albany Plan)
    Made statement of grievances against crown
    Resolution for military preparedness
    Created Continental Association to inforce non-importation
    Voted to meet again (made it a continuing organization)

Conciliatory Acts (under Prime Minister William Pitt)
    Cancelled Coercive Acts
    News did not reach colonies until after Lexington & Concord

Lexington & Concord - start of Revolutionary War

Next: The Revolutionary War >>

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