U.S. History Outline: X. Post-Civil War America

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Post-Civil War U.S.
    Strong, unified national government
    Large army and munitions
    Aggressive, restless population

Before Civil War:
    New England and South discouraged westward expansion
    Each tried to hinder other's access to west
After Civil War:
    Displaced populations moving out west
       Northerners returning from army
       Southerners who lost homes in war
       Former slaves

Native American tribes in the southwest
    Generally weaker than the old eastern tribes (except for Pueblos)
    U.S.'s weaponry had advanced
    Tribes were not a great threat to settlers
Mexican population in the southwest
    Only tiny settlements
    Quickly displaced by Americans

Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago
    Recognized Mexican property rights in U.S.-owned territories
    Not upheld by local governments
    New American land claims upheld over old Mexican claims

Chinese migration to west
    Union Pacific Railroad recruited workers in China
    Chinese importations was cheap and they worked for low wages
    Chinese emmigrants harrassed by Americans
    Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
       Banned Chinese immigration for 10 years
       Barred Chinese in the U.S. from citizenship
       Renewed 1892, made permanent 1902
       Result - companies started importing Japanese workers
Increased immigration from Europe
    Civil wars, famine in Europe
    Eastern European immigration increased in particular

Land acts promoted expansion
    Homestead Act (1862)
       Gave farmland to anyone who farmed it for 5 years
       Covered 160 acres of Great Plains farmland
       400,000 people took advantage of it
    Desert Lands Act (1877)
       Gave cheap land to anyone who irrigated it

During this time period Nevada and midwest states joined union

Gold and silver mining
    1858 - Silver discovered in Nevada
       Henry Comstock - Comstock lode
       Quickly became more profitable than California gold mining
    1874 - Gold discovered in South Dakota

Indian Wars (mostly in northern plains)
       Leaders: Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
       Major battles: Battle of Little Big Horn, Wounded Knee
       Leaders: Chief Joseph
       Major Battles: Battle of White Bird Canyon
       Leaders: Cochise and Geronimo

Economy of west
    Mining, farming, ranching
    Settlers had many problems; small farms often did not support families

Expansion of industry in Ohio Valley and Chicago regions
    John D. Rockefeller - Standard Oil Co. in Ohio (1870)
    Cornelius Vanderbilt - consolidated railroads
    Andrew Carnegie - U.S. Steele Corp.
    Business benefitted from corporate structure
    Monopolies - vertical and horizontal consolidation
    Justification of wealthy/monopolies
       "Social Darwinism"
       Horatio Alger's rags-to-riches stories
       Carnegie's The Gospel of Wealth - philanthropism
    Henry George (1879) advocated single tax (income tax)
    Edward Bellamy wanted to organize society into small, rural communities

Labor issues
    Child labor problem - campaign to take children out of workforce
    Labor unions (not associated with a single trade) appeared 1880s
    First union was American Federation of Labor (AFL) (1881)
       Wanted to take women and children out of workforce
       Samuel Gompers
    Pullman Co. labor dispute (1894)
       Pullman Co. worked like sharecropping
       1894 - Pullman reduced wages, leading to riots
       Eugene V. Debs managed worker strike
       Grover Cleveland called in army to put it down
    Haymarket riots (1886)
       AFL called for strikes in Chicago
       Union members clashed with police
    Homestead strike (1892)
       Strike at U.S. Steele Corp.
       Similar circumstances to Pullman strike
       Carnegie brought in Pinkertons (rented cops)
       Rioters overwhelmed Pinkertons
       National Guard finally put down riots
    Early unions had little power
       Unions had not yet figured out that they needed political control
       Many union goals were not accomplished
       Only a small percentage of workers joined unions

Urbanization - movement to the cities
       Rise of industry
       Transportation and sanitation improvements
       Technological advancements
             Safe, durable, cheap, easy to build
             Louis Sullivan - built first skyscraper in Chicago 1884
          Bessemer - steel production
          Otis - elevator
          Crapper - flush toilers
       Mass migration from East and South
          Either moved into cities or moved out west
       Immigration reached a peak
          Asian and Central/Eastern European
          Majority of city population were immigrants
          (Some American cities contained more people of a given nationality than could be found in the large cities of their home countries)
       Progressives lamented loss of rural roots
       Urban problems
          Fires, sanitation problems, overcrowding, crime
          Sensationalist stories about city living led to move for reforms
       Mixing of foreign cultures - caused friction
          Many immigrants came from non-democratic nations
          Many immigrants were Catholics or other minority religions

Rise of nativism
    American Protective Association (1887)
       Henry Bowers - founder
       Dedicated to stopping immigration
    Resurgance of Ku Klux Klan
       First appeared in Reconstruction South
       Revived in Midwest as anti-immigrant society
       Spread back to South in 20th century

Growth of Political Machine
    Tammany Hall, Boss Tweed, George Plunkit
    Everything ran on political favors, inside information
    Favors exchanged for votes
    "Kickbacks" or bribes ("honest graft")
    Political machines worked well in big cities
    Took advantage of immigrants
       Votes traded for jobs, housing, etc.
       Many immigrants not used to democratic government
       Political machine was like feudal system of Eastern Europe

Economics of the city
    Mass market
       Many people living and working in similar circumstances
       All these people need to buy the same things
    Mass production
       Started with mass-marketed food
       Mass-marketed clothing - department stores
    As a result of mass marketing and mass production, prices fell steadily from 1890-1940

Turn-of-the-century American culture
    Leisure time
       Baseball was popular, football just invented
       Theater - vaudeville, black minstrel shows
          Invented by Edison 1900
          First full-length movie - Birth of a Nation about the growth of the Ku Klux Klan after the Civil War
    Mass communication
       Newspaper chains started by Pulitzer
       William Randolf Hearst - NY Times, brought comic strips to U.S.
       Yellow journalism - sensationalism
    Realism in art and literature
    Universal public education, schooling for women

Republican split after Hayes' election
    Stalwarts - traditionalists, favored "machine" politics and favor-swapping
    Half-breeds - (half Democrat/half Republican), favored reforms
Main policy of the Half-breeds was civil service reform
    Wanted to require tests for civil service positions
    Civil servants should be qualified and not just friends of politicians

Election of 1880
    Stalwart/Half-breed split caused deadlock at Republican convention
    Half-breeds chose James Garfield as president
    Stalwarts chose Chester Arthur as vice president
Garfield assassinated, Arthur took over
    1881 - Garfield shot by Charles Guiteau, angry over not getting a civil service job
    Arthur followed Garfield's policy of reform
       Pendleton Act
          Required written exams for some civil service jobs
          Expanded over time to cover all civil service jobs

Election of 1884 - Cleveland (Dem.) vs. Blaine (Rep.)
    Republican's didn't support Arthur, chose James Blaine
    Half-breeds didn't support Blaine
    Mugwumps - Republicans who ditched the party and sided with Democrats for Grover Cleveland

Grover Cleveland's reforms
    Wanted to do away with machine politics
    Vetoed legislation that served friends of legislators
    Worked for tariff reduction
    Thought less money in the government would make it less corrupt

Election of 1888 - Cleveland (Dem.) vs. Harrison (Rep.)
    Main issue was tariff reduction
    Benjamin Harrison's campaign was probably most corrupt campaign in history
    Harrison lost popular vote, but carried electoral college vote in large states

Legislation passed under Benjamin Harrison
    Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
       Largely symbolic, rarely enforced before 1900
       More often used against unions than businesses
    McKinley Act (1890)
       Highest protective tariff ever in the U.S.
       Outraged public
       Caused many Republicans to be voted out of Congress

Election of 1892 - Cleveland (Dem.) vs. Harrison (Rep.) vs. Weaver (People's Party)
    Cleveland won on a platform of lower tariffs

More Cleveland reforms
    Wanted lower tariff (not passed by Congress)
    First income tax passed (Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional two years later)

Granger laws, restrictions on railroads
    Passed by states to help farmers
    Supreme Court declared both unconstitutional
Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
    Created Interstate Commerce Commission
    Set rates for interstate transport
    Railroads had been charging more for short-distance transport than long-
Grange movement
    Oliver Kelley founded 1867 - farmers' society, men only
    Small farmers couldn't produce enough to survive
    Depression of 1873
       Movement became more political
       Farmers blamed banks and railroads for economic problems
       Farmers organized cooperatives against the monopolies
       Cooperatives were effectively farm monopolies
    Grangers became dominant party in some state legislatures
    1880 - Grangers replaced by Farmers' Alliances
       Much bigger movement, allowed women
       Chiefly cooperative and marketing movement
       Also served as a credit union
    1889 - formation of People's Party
       North and South Farmers' Alliances merged and formed political party
       Also called the Populist movement
       Theory was that little guys should join together and use mass buying power to counteract monopolies
       Wanted 8-hour workday, rights for unions
       Against gold standard
       Wanted direct election of Senators
    Free Silver movement
       Connected to Populists, who favored inflation
    Grangers limited by rural outlook
       Did not join with urban labor unions
       Did not allow blacks
    Ignatius Donnelly - Populist leader
       (Fun fact! He was also known for publishing his extensive theories on the lost city of Atlantis.)

1893 Depression
    1890s - cheap labor allowed middle class to live well but angered lower class
    Panic of 1893
       Overexpansion of railroads and businesses led to bank failures
       Also, crop failure due to blizzard of 1888
       Worst depression in history (except for 1929 crash)
    Wages cut due to depression
       Resulted in Pullman strike, Homestead strike
    Free silver debate revived

Election of 1896 - McKinley (Rep.) vs. Bryant (Dem.)
    William McKinley - conservative, supported gold standard
    Democrats split - liberal Democrats adopted some of Populist platform
    Liberal democrats nominated William Jennings Bryant and Free Silver platform
    William Jennings Bryant - "Cross of Gold" speech for Free Silver
    Bryant had Democrat and Populist vote, but lost to McKinley
    Populists lost power after this election

McKinley legislation
    Dingley Tariff - a high tariff
    Gold Standard Act
    Not much effect on economy - industry was already recovering on its own

U.S. emerged as an international power
    U.S. had matured economically
    No more land on western frontier
    Imperialism was big in Europe - U.S. began looking for new land to acquire
U.S. took a more active role in Latin America
    1895 - U.S. intervened in dispute between Britain and Venezuela
       Venezuela owed debts to Britain
       U.S. invoked Monroe Doctrine to force Britain to leave Venezuela alone
    1893 - Americans in Hawaii staged a revolution and asked for annexation
       Hawaii had become an important port due to trade with Japan and China
       Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii, but McKinley annexed it 1898
    1899 - U.S. and Germany took joint control of the Samoan Islands

Conflicts in Cuba
    1895 - Civil War in Cuba
       Partly due to high U.S. tariffs on sugar, which damaged Cuban economy
       McKinley opposed Spanish rule in Cuba
    1898 - Lome letter
       Spanish ambassador to U.S. gave insulting description of McKinley to Spanish government
    1898 - Maine incident
       U.S. ship Maine blew up in Havana harbor
April 1898 - U.S. declared war on Spain

Spanish-American War
    U.S. invaded Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines
    George Dewey sank Spanish fleet in Manilla Bay
       Teddy Roosevelt had sent American fleet to Manilla Bay before war was officially declared
       Spanish ships were too old to sail
       Only one American casualty (he died of heat stroke)
    U.S. invaded Cuba
       Met little resistance
       Battle of San Juan Hill - Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders
    U.S. occupied Puerto Rico
       1917 - Jones Act annexed Puerto Rico
          Made Puerto Rico a U.S. territory
          Made Puerto Ricans U.S. citizens
    Dec. 1898 - Treaty of Paris ended Spanish-American War
       Spain ceded to U.S. Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Cuba

    Anti-Imperialist League
       Thought imperialism was immoral
       Felt that Latin Americans would pollute U.S. culture
    Cuba and Philippines
       Protectorates - U.S. territory but not U.S. citizens
       U.S. was only taking care of them until they became independent
       Started as a military protectorate, later annexed
    1901 - Platt Amendment
       Gave Cuba semi-independence
       U.S. still had control of Cuban foreign policy and right to intervene
    Philippino War
       Uprising against U.S. occupation
       Lasted 4 years, killed more Americans than entire Spanish-American War
    1901 - William Taft became governor of the Philippines

    U.S. insisted on open-door policy with China
       Gave all powers equal access to Chinese markets
       Prevented China from being carved up into European colonies
       All European powers agreed, except for Russia
    Boxer Rebellion (1900) - Uprising against the imperial family

Progressive movement
    Rose out of Populism
    Reaction to Social Darwinism
    Wanted to humanize industry, take care of victims
    Leaders were old rich families displaced by new industry bosses
Social Gospel
    People with money had a moral duty to care for the less fortunate
    Thought people were a result of their environment
    Wanted to create a better environment and thus improve people
    1900 - Salvation Army founded
    Settlement House Movement founded by Jane Adams
    Tried to create a middle-class environment for the poor
Muckracking journalism
    Exposed corruption, poor working conditions
    Lincoln Steffens - exposed corruption in big business
    Progressives wanted everything run by people with expertise
    Believed there should standards for everything
    Professional licensing boards
       People had to take tests and become certified for certain jobs
       1901 - American Medical Association formed
       Bar Association formed to certify lawyers
       National Association of Manufacturers
Municipal reform - clean up cities
    Secret ballot
       Prevented political bosses from tracking their constituents' votes
    Replace city bosses with professional city managers
       Tom Johnson - reform mayor of Cleveland
       Hazen Pingree - Detroit
       Samuel "Golden Rule" Jones - Toledo
    Reforms spread to state governments in 1910s
       Restrictions on lobbyists
       Woodrow Wilson - reform governor of New Jersey
       Robert LaFollette - Wisconsin
Labor unions joined Progressive bandwagon
    1911 - Triangle Shirtwaist fire
       Used as an example of unsafe working conditions
    Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
Womens Rights
    Progressives believed everyone should have an equal chance in life
    Women began entering professions
    Women's associations formed around professions
       Colored Women's National Association - first black women's group
       Many associations had pension funds - model for Social Security
    Women's Suffrage Movement
       Pitch was that women would all vote for reforms and human interests
       1910 - various states gave women the right to vote
          Started on west coast with Washington, gradually spread east
       1920 - 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote
Beginning of Civil Rights movement
    Niagra Movement (1905) - precurser to NAACP
    Booker T. Washington
    W.E.B. du Bois - founded NAACP in 1909
    Wanted blacks to educate themselves, get better jobs, integrate into white society
Temperance movement
    1873 - Women's Christian Temperance Union
    Anti-Saloon League, run by Carry Nation, merged with WCTU
    WCTU was largest women's organization in U.S.
       Major influence in women's suffrage movement
    1920 - 18th Amendment - Prohibition

Immigration restrictions
    Scientific criminalism
       Said that moral and intellectual traits were related to physical traits such as race
       Madison Grant - The Passing of the Great Race
          Lamented cross-breeding between whites and "inferior" races
       Immigrants believed to be morally inferior, so removing them would improve environment for Americans
    Dillingham Report
       On scientific criminalism, recommended restricting immigration
    Big business opposed immigration restriction
       Immigrants provided cheap labor

Socialist movement
    1900 - American Socialist Party formed
       Led by Eugene V. Debs
       Won many elections, but no federal positions
    International Workers of the World (IWW, or Wobblies)
       Socialist labor union
    Louis Brandeis
       Thought business and government were gettng too big
       Became Cheif Justice of the Supreme Court
    Socialist movements killed by World War I

Teddy Roosevelt and reforms at national level
    1901 - McKinley assassinated by Leon Czolgosz
       Teddy Roosevelt became president
       TR was a popular war hero with a progressive outlook
       TR used Sherman Anti-trust Act against big business, railroads, banks
    Support for labor
       TR used federal government to aid unions
       1902 - United Mine Workers' strike (Anthracite Coal strike)
          TR suggested impartial federal arbitration
          Mine workers refused, but TR threatened to send in troops
    Election of 1904 - TR elected with little opposition
    Square Deal
       TR's plan to limit big business and help the working man
       Interstate Commerce Commission regulated railroads
       1906 - Pure Food and Drug Act
       TR wanted additional reforms, but conservatives in Congress wouldn't pass them
       National Park system created to preserve western lands
       John Muir - founder of Sierra Club
Panic of 1907
    Blamed on Teddy Roosevelt's reforms

Election of 1908
    William Taft (Rep.) vs. William Jennings Bryan (Dem.)
    TR had selected Taft as his replacement, felt Taft would continue his reforms
    Taft won, primary because of TR's record and because Bryan came off as too radical

President Taft
    Wanted lower tariffs, but got the Payne-Aldritch Tariff, which raised tariffs
    Tariffs were primary source of government income, but high tariffs meant high price of goods for the common man
1909 - Pinchot-Ballinger controversy
    Ballinger sold park land to coal companies, Pinchot told Taft
    Taft took no action because he had appointed Ballinger
    Some people took it as a sign that Taft was not loyal to TR's ideals
1910 - TR decided to retake control of the Republican party
    New Nationalism - TR's Progressive platform
       National government would regulate big business
       Income and inheritance tax, workers' compensation
       Regulation of child and women's labor
    TR wanted LaFollette as a presidental candidate, but LaFollette had a mental breakdown
1912 - TR at Republican nomination convention
    TR asked Republicans to back Progressive reforms
    Instead, delegates nominated Taft
TR formed his own party - Progressive party (or Bull Moose party)

Election of 1912
    Taft (Rep.) vs. Woodrow Wilson (Dem.) vs. TR (Progressive)
    Wilson was also a progressive, ran on New Freedom platform
       Nearly the same as Roosevelt's platform
       Wanted to break up trusts instead of just regulating them
       Brandeis was Wilson's political advisor
    Republican split ensured an easy victory for Wilson

President Wilson's reforms
    1913 - 16th Amendment - income tax
    Underwood-Simmons tariff - reduced tariffs
    Federal Reserve Act
       Created federal reserve banking system
       Subjected all banks to federal regulation
    Wilson didn't break up trusts, but did regulate them
    Federal Trade Commission - regulated for unfair business practices
       Keating-Owen Act - regulated child labor
       Clayton Act - expanded Sherman Anti-trust Act

International Affairs
    Teddy Roosevelt - "Big Stick" Diplomacy
    Used military force in foreign affairs
    Portsmouth Treaty
          TR negotiated peace agreement ending Russo-Japanese War
          Favored Japan
       1903 - Panama
          U.S. encouraged Panama to declare indepedence from Columbia, so U.S. could build canal
       1904 - Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
          Gave U.S. right to interfere in Latin America
       1905 - U.S. took over Dominican Republic
    William Taft - Dollar Diplomacy
       U.S. would intervene to protect economic investments
       Used money to solve disputes
    Woodrow Wilson - Moral Diplomacy
       U.S. should intervene for ethical reasons
       U.S. would be the conscience of the world, make world safe for democracy
       1913 - Huerta became dictator of Mexico in a coup
          Wilson offered to send U.S. troops to aid Huerta's opposition
       1914 - Dolphin incident
          Sailors from the Dolphin arrested on shore leave in Mexico
          Wilson demanded apology and 21-gun salute to U.S. flag on Mexican land
          Mexico refused to do the salute
          Wilson seized Veracruz, weakened Huerta and allowed Carranza to take over
       1916 - Carranza would not adopt social reforms in Mexico
       Pancho Villa attacked Southwestern U.S.
          Villa blamed U.S. for putting Carranza in power
          U.S. declared war on Pancho Villa
          U.S. never caught him and eventually gave up

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