U.S. History Outline: I. The Colonies

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English Civil War around 1600 resulted in persecution of Puritans, so Puritans emigrated

1607 - Virginia - London/Plymouth Co.
    1587 - Roanoke
    1607 - Jamestown of Chesapeake, John Smith
    1609 - Virginia Co., more settlers came
    1609-1610 - Starving time, 90% death rate
    1610 - Priate land ownership
    1612 - John Rolfe, tobacco farming
    Headright - 50 acres for every adult who settled
    1619 - Virginia House of Burgesses, first slaves
    1624 - Virginia Co. goes bankrupt, becomes Virginia crown colony
    1640 - Powhatan, Susquehanna defeated
    1676 - Bacon's Rebellion
       Deog Indians attacked
       Bacon was angry that Governor Barkley tried to appease Indians
       Bacon raised army, overthrew Barkley, burned the town

1620 - Plymouth - Pilgrims (Puritan separatists or Congregationalists)
    Pilgrims had permission to settle in Virginia but landed in Massachusetts
    Mayflower Compact - set up a goverment outside jurisdiction of Virginia Co.
    Squanto, friendly Indians
    William Bradford - 2nd governor of colony
    1621 - became a chartered colony
    1625 - Charles I

1629 - Massachusetts Bay Colony - Puritans (non-separatists)
    1630 - first settlement of over 1000 (largest single migration)
    1630 - set up own government
    Each town had own little government, self-governed
    Only elect ("Saints") could hold public office, which caused frequent divisions

1635 - Connecticut - Thomas Hooker and his congregation
    Hooker broke from the Massachusetts colony government
    1639 - Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
    1662 - recognized as a colony and given royal charter

1635 - Rhode Island - Roger Williams and followers
    Williams broke from Massachusetts government
    Bought land from Indians to found town of Providence
    1644 - obtained royal charter
    Only American colony with complete religious freedom

1629 - Maine and New Hampshire
    Separated from Massachusetts by the Council of New England

1639 - New Hampshire - followers of Anne Hutchinson (Anti-Nomianists)
    John Mason was governor
    John Wrainwright started the colony
    1679 - recognized as a colony
    1675 - King Phillip's War
       Wompanowags - Massachusetts had tried to assert court jurisdiction over Indians
       Lasted 1 year, ended with help from Mohawks

1632 - Maryland
    Established for Catholics, proprietary
    Led by a noble with charter
    Founded by George Calvert
    1649 - Act Concerning Religion established religious freedom

1624 - New Netherlands - Dutch
    Colony in the New York area
    Peter Stuyvesant was governor

1642 - English Civil War
1647 - Cromwell became Lord Protector
1660 - Stuart Restoration (King Charles II took over)

1663-1665 - Carolinas
    Charles II paid off 8 supporters by giving them the Carolinas
    These 8 sold land to settlers, set up headrights, government, etc.
    All but one of the 8 eventually quit, had to pay colonists
    1690 - Charleston
    John Locke drew up Fundamental Constitution for Carolina (never actually instituted)
    Carolina split into North and South
       Southern region had ties to sugar islands
       Northern region was mostly farms
       Conflicts between rich South and poor North
       1729 - English Crown divided colony into NC and SC

1664 - New York
    Proprietary with rich noble class (like Carolina)
    1664 - British took New York from Dutch
       Charles II gave his brother (Duke of York) the NY area
       Dutch already owned the NY region
       1664 - British sailed into harbor
       Dutch colonists hated their governor Stuyvesant
       Dutch threw the governor off the dock and surrendered to British
    1673 - Dutch retook New Amsterdam
    1674 - British recaptured New Amsterdam and renamed it New York
    Conflicts between land-owning and poor
    1685 - New York was the most populous colony

1702 - New Jersey
    Duke of York gave this region to two of his friends
    1702 - New Jersey declared a separate colony

1681 - Pennsylvania
    Charles II gave land to William Penn
    Penn founded a colony for Quakers
    Religious freedom, no church heirarchy
    1682 - Philadelphia was built, but no one lived there
    1701 - Charter of Liberties
       Established representative government
       Allowed counties to form new colonies

1703 - Delaware
    County that broke away from Pennsylvania

1773 - Georgia
    Queen Anne's War (1701-1713) showed need for a buffer for Carolinas
    Founded by a charity
    Military - protected Carolinas from Spanish Florida and Indian raids
    Founded by Oglethorpe
    Resettled poor and criminals, colony was tightly disciplined
    No slaves, no alcohol, no catholics
    Colony leadership broke down
       Residents wanted to own slaves
       People angry at Oglethorpe's dictatorship
    1750 - end of ban on slavery
    1752 - English King authorized an elected government for colony

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