The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and
principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live
in peace with all peoples and all governments.
They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and
civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy,
individual liberty and the rule of law.
They seek to promote stability and well-being in the North Atlantic
They are resolved to unite their efforts for collective defence and for
the preservation of peace and security.
They therefore agree to this North Atlantic Treaty:
The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United
Nations, to settle any international dispute in which they may be
involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and
security and justice are not endangered, and to refrain in their
international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner
inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.
The Parties will contribute toward the further development of peaceful
and friendly international relations by strengthening their free
institutions, by bringing about a better understanding of the principles
upon which these institutions are founded, and by promoting conditions
of stability and well-being. They will seek to eliminate conflict in
their international economic policies and will encourage economic
collaboration between any or all of them.
In order more effectively to achieve the objectives of this Treaty,
the Parties, separately and jointly, by means of continuous and effective
self-help and mutual aid, will maintain and develop their individual and
collective capacity to resist armed attack.
The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any of
them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of
any of the Parties is threatened.
The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in
Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all,
and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each
of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective
selfdefence recognised by Article 5 of the Charter of the United
Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking
forthwith, individually, and in concert with the other Parties, such
action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to
restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.
Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall
immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be
terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to
restore and maintain international peace and security.
For the purpose of Article 5, an armed attack on one or more of the
Parties is deemed to include an armed attack:
- on the territory of any of the Parties in Europe or North America, on
the Algerian Departments of France, on the territory of Turkey or on the
islands under the jurisdiction of any of the Parties in the North
Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer;
- on the forces, vessels, or aircraft of any of the Parties, when in or
over these territories or any area in Europe in which occupation forces
of any of the Parties were stationed on the date when the Treaty entered
into force or the Mediterranean Sea or the North Atlantic area north of
the Tropic of Cancer.
The Treaty does not effect, and shall not be interpreted as affecting,
in any way the rights and obligations under the Charter of the Parties
which are members of the United Nations, or the primary responsibility
of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and
Each Party declares that none of the international engagements now in
force between it and any other of the Parties or any third State is in
conflict with the provisions of this Treaty, and undertakes not to enter
into any international engagement in conflict with this Treaty.
The Parties hereby establish a Council, on which each of them shall be
represented to consider matters concerning the implementation of this
Treaty. The Council shall be so organised as to be able to meet promptly
at any time. The Council shall set up such subsidiary bodies as may be
necessary; in particular it shall establish immediately a defence
committee which shall recommend measures for the implementation of
Articles 3 and 5.
The Parties may, by unanimous agreement, invite any other European State
in a position to further the principles of this Treaty and to contribute
to the security of the North Atlantic area to accede to this Treaty. Any
State so invited may become a party to the Treaty by depositing its
instrument of accession with the Government of the United States of
America. The Government of the United States of America will inform each
of the Parties of the deposit of each such instrument of accession.
This Treaty shall be ratified and its provisions carried out by the
Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
The instruments of ratification shall be deposited as soon as possible
with the Government of the United States of America, which will notify
all the other signatories of each deposit. The Treaty shall enter into
force between the States which have ratified it as soon as the
ratification of the majority of the signatories, including the
ratifications of Belgium, Canada, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,
the United Kingdom and the United States, have been deposited and shall
come into effect with respect to other States on the date of the deposit
of their ratifications.
After the Treaty has been in force for ten years, or at any time
thereafter, the Parties shall, if any of them so requests, consult
together for the purpose of reviewing the Treaty, having regard for the
factors then affecting peace and security in the North Atlantic area
including the development of universal as well as regional arrangements
under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of
international peace and security.
After the Treaty has been in force for twenty years, any Party may cease
to be a Party one year after its notice of denunciation has been given
to the Government of the United States of America, which will inform the
Governments of the other Parties of the deposit of each notice of
This Treaty, of which the English and French texts are equally
authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the
United States of America. Duly certified copies will be transmitted by
that government to the governments of the other signatories.
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