1551. Twenty-Sixth Amendment
Lowered voting age to 18.
Name given to Mexican-Americans, who in 1970, were the majority of migrant farm labor in the U.S.
1553. Cesar Chavez
Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike against fruit and vegetable growers. Unionized Mexican-American farm workers.
1554. Warren E. Burger Appointed, 1969
A conservative appointed by Nixon, he filled Earl Warren's liberal spot.
1555. American Indian Movement (AIM), Wounded Knee
Formed in 1968 by urban Indians who seized the village of Wounded Knee in February, 1973 to bring attention to Indian rights. This 71-day confrontation with federal marshalls ended in a government agreement to reexamine treaty rights of the Ogalala Sioux.
1556. Multinational Corporations
Most were American business firms whose sales, work force, production facilities or other operations were worldwide in scope. They represented the latest development in the continuing growth of corporate organization.
1557. Arab oil embargo
October 6, 1973 - Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. Moscow backed Egypt and both U.S. and U.S.S.R. put their armed forced on alert. In an attempt to pressure America into a pro-Arab stance, OPEC imposed an embargo on all oil to the U.S.
1558. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
An international oil cartel dominated by an Arab majority, joined together to protect themselves.
1559. Balance of Trade
1973 - U.S. tried to balance its trade to make American goods cost less for foreigners, in order to encourage them to buy more American products. Resulted in a devalued dollar.
1560. Alaska pipeline
Built in 1975 along the pipeline to Valdez, it was an above-ground pipe 4 feet in diameter used to pump oil from the vast oil fields of northern Alaska to the tanker station in Valdez Bay where the oil was put aboard ships for transport to refineries in the continental U.S..
1561. The Imperial Presidency
A book written in the later days of the Richard M. Nixon presidency by Arthur M. Schlensinger, Jr.
1562. Gerald R. Ford
Nixon's vice president after Agnew resigned, he became the only president never to be elected. Taking office after Nixon resigned, he pardoned Nixon for all federal crimes that he "committed or may have committed."
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
1564. SALT II
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
1565. Election of 1976: candidate, issues
Jimmy Carter, Democrate defeated Gerald Ford, Republican. The issues were energy, transportation, and conservation. Carter had no Washington ties. Ford appealed to the upper- middle class, but Carter won by 1.7 million votes.
1566. Jimmy Carter
Elected to the Senate in 1962 and 1964, in 1974 he became the 39th President, with Vice President Walter Mondale. He secured energy programs, set the framework for Egypt-Israel treaty, and sought to base foreign policy on human rights.
A general pardon by which the government absolves offenders, President Carter offered amnesty of Americans who had fled to other countries to avoid the draft for the Vietnam War.
1568. Panama Canal Treaty
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
1569. Camp David Accords
Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter.
1570. Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty: Menachem Begin, Anwar Sadat
Product of the Camp David Accords, Sadat represented Egypt and Begin represented Israel. Israel returned land to Egypt in exchange for Egyptian recognition. Earned both men the Noble Peace Prize.
1571. Palestinian Liberation Front (PLO), Yassar Arafat
Led by Arafat, it was organized to liberate Palestine from Israelis in the late '70's and early '80's. Its guerilla warfare and terrorist tactics were not effective.
1572. Humphrey-Hawkins Bill
Proposed that detention centers be set up for suspected subversives (Communists) who could be held without a trial, it was known as the "concentration camp bill."
1573. Department of Energy
1977 - Carter added it to the Cabinet to acknowledge the importance of energy conservation.
1574. Department of Education
1977 - Carter added it to the Cabinet to acknowledge the changing role of the federal government in education.
1575. Afghanistan, 1979
The Soviet Union sent troops into neighboring Afghanistan to support its Communist government against guerilla attacks by fundamentalist Muslims.
1576. Olympic Boycott, 1980
The U.S. withdrew from the competition held in Moscow to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. About 64 other nations withdrew for this and other reasons.
1577. Iranian Crisis, the Shah, the Ayatollah Khomeini
1978 - a popular uprising forced the Shah to flee Iran and a Muslim and national leader, the Ayatollah Khomeini, established an Islamic Republic based on the Koran. President Carter allowed the Shah to come to the U.S. for medical reasons. Young Iranian militants broke into the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and kept the staff hostage for 444 days, releasing them January, 1981.
1578. Election of 1980: candidates, issues
Ronald Wilson Reagan, Republican defeated Jimmy Carter, Democrat and John B. Anderson, Independent. The issues were government spending and traditional values.
Reagan's theory that if you cut taxes, it will spur the growth of public spending and improve the economy. It included tax breaks for the rich, "supply-side economics," and "trickle down" theory.
1580. Supply side economics
Reaganomics policy based on the theory that allowing companies the opportunity to make profits, and encouraging investment, will stimulate the economy and lead to higher standards of living for everyone. Argued that tax cuts can be used stimulate economic growth. Move money into the hands of the people and they will invest, thus creating prosperity.
1581. Sandra Day O'Connor
(b. 1930) Arizona state senator from 1969 to 1974, appointed to the Arizona Court of Appeals in 1979. Reagan appointed her to the U.S. Supreme Court, making her the first female Justice of the Supreme Court.
1582. Lech Walesa, Solidarity
President of Poland in 1990, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983. He formed the first independent trade union in Poland, called Solidarity, and eventually brought down the Communist government and instituted democratic government. Credited with initiating the end of Communist domination in Eastern Europe.
1583. Three Mile Island
1979 - A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.
1584. "Moral Majority"
"Born-Again" Christians become politically active. The majority of Americans are moral people, and therefore are a political force.
1585. Iran-Iraq War
Fought over religious differences, this war lasted many years, from 1980 to 1988.
1586. El Salvador
Three U.S. nuns found shot in El Salvador in December, 1980. President Carter had stopped aid to El Salvador's right-wing dictator, but President Reagan started it again.
1587. Falkland Islands War
Between Britain and Argentina, centered around their claims to control over these islands.
1588. Supreme Court: Mapp v. Ohio, 1961
Ms. Mapp was affirmed convicted having pornography "on her person" even though Ohio police obtained the material without a warrant. The Supreme Court ruled that there must be a warrant to search.
1589. Supreme Court: Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
Court decided that state and local courts must provide counsel for defendants in felony cases at the state's expense in any serious felony prosecution. Before, counsel was only appointed if the death penalty was involved.
1590. Supreme Court: Escobedo v. Illinois, 1964
Court ruled that there was a right to counsel at the police station. This was needed to deter forced confessions given without the benefit of counsel.
1591. Supreme Court: Miranda v. Arizona, 1966
Court declared that police officers must inform persons they arrest of their rights: the right to remain silent and the right to counsel during interrogation.
1592. Supreme Court: Engel v. Vitale, 1962
Local and state laws requiring prayer in public schools were banned on the grounds that such laws violated the First Amendment.
1593. Supreme Court: School District of Abington Township v. Schempp, 1963
Held that it should not be necessary to require prayer be said in school. School district was said to be violating the First and Fourteenth Amendments.
1594. Supreme Court: Baker v. Carr, 1962
Declared that the principle of "one person, one vote" must prevail at both state and national levels. Decision required that districts be redrawn as that each representative represented the same number of people.
1595. Supreme Court: Wesberry v. Sanders, 1964
Supreme Court required states to draw their congressional districts so that each represented the same number of people. "As nearly as practical, one man's vote . . . is to be worth as much as another's".
1597. Supreme Court: Reynolds v. Sims, 1964
Supreme Court created the one person, one vote grounded in the Equal Protection Clause.
1597. Supreme Court: Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S., 1964
Supreme Court said that there would be penalties for those who deprived others of equal enjoyment of places of accommodation on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin.
1598. Supreme Court: Swan v. Carlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education, 1971
A unanimous decision that the busing of students may be ordered to achieve racial desegregation.
1599. Supreme Court: Bakke v. Board of Regents, University of California at Davis, 1978
Barred colleges from admitting students solely on the basis of race, but allowed them to include race along with other considerations when deciding which students to admit.
1600. Supreme Court: Reed v. Reed, 1971
Equal protection: the Supreme Court engaged in independent judicial review of a statute which discriminated between persons on the basis of sex, making it clear that the Supreme Court would no longer treat sex-based classifications with judicial deference.
1601. Supreme Court: Doe v. Bolton, 1973
Supreme Court found that physicians consulted by pregnant women had standing to contest the constitutionality of the state's abortion law.
1602. Supreme Court: Roe v. Wade, 1973
Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional most state statutes restricting abortion. It ruled that a state may not prevent a woman from having an abortion during the first 3 months of pregnancy, and could regulate, but not prohibit abortion during the second trimester. Decision in effect overturned anti-abortion laws in 46 states.
1603. Supreme Court: Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 1980
Ruled that a man-made life form (genetic engineering) could be patented.
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