1501. Panama Canal treaties
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
1502. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
Formed in 1962 in Port Huron, Michigan, SDS condemned anti-Democratic tendencies of large corporations, racism and poverty, and called for a participatory Democracy.
1503. "Flower Children"
Hippies who were unified by their rejection of traditional values and assumptions of Western society.
1504. Charles Reich, The Greening of America
Written in 1970, it predicted a coming revolution with no violence. It offers an interpretation of how the U.S. went wrong and predicts a rebirth of human values through a "new" generation.
1505. Election of 1964: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Barry Goldwater
Goldwater alienated people and was believed to be too conservative. He was perceived as an extremist who advocated the use of nuclear weapons if needed to win the war in Vietnam. LBJ won by the largest margin ever.
1506. Great Society
Platform for LBJ's campaign, it stressed the 5 P's: Peace, Prosperity, anti-Poverty, Prudence and Progress.
1507. Office of Economic Opportunity
1965 - Part of the war on poverty, it was headed by R. Sargent Shiver, and was ineffective due to the complexity of the problem. It provided Job Corps, loans, training, VISTA, and educational programs.
1508. War on Poverty
1965 - Johnson figured that since the Gross National Profit had risen, the country had lots of extra money "just lying around," so he'd use it to fight poverty. It started many small programs, Medicare, Head Start, and reorganized immigration to eliminate national origin quotas. It was put on hold during the Vietnam War.
1509. Elementary and Secondary Act
1965 - Provided federal funding for primary and secondary education and was meant to improve the education of poor people. This was the first federal program to fund education.
Enacted in 1965 - provided, under Social Security, for federal subsidies to pay for the hospitalization of sick people age 65 and over.
1511. Abolition of immigration quotas
1965 - Amendments to Immigration and Nationality Act abolished national origin quotas and instead, based immigration on skills and need for political asylum.
1512. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Created by Congress in 1965, it was 11th in cabinet office. Afro-American economist Dr. Robert C. Weaver was named head, and the department regulated and monitored housing and suburban development. It also provided rent supplements for low-income families.
1513. John Birch Society
Right-wing group named for an American missionary to China who had been executed by Communist troops. They opposed the liberal tendencies of the Great Society programs, and attempted to impeach Earl Warren for his liberal, "Communist" actions in the Supreme Court.
1514. New Left
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
1515. Senator Robert F. Kennedy
Attorney General under his brother, JFK, he was assassinated in June 1968 while campaigning for the Democratic party nomination.
1516. Election of 1968: candidates, issues
Richard M. Nixon, Republican, won by a 1% margin against Hubert Humphrey, Democrat. The issues were the war in Vietnam and urban crisis of law and order.
1517. Czechoslovakia invaded
1968 - Liberalization of Czechoslovakia was crushed by the Soviet Union invasion.
1518. Chicago, Democratic Party Convention riot
August, 1968 - With national media coverage, thousands of anti-war protestors, Blacks and Democratic supporters were clubbed by Major Daley's police.
1519. Richard Nixon's "Southern Strategy"
His political strategy of "courting" the South and bad-mouthing those Northerners who bad- mouthed the South. He chose Spiro Agnew, the Governor of Maryland, as his running mate to get the Southern vote.
1520. Governor George Wallace of Alabama
1968 - Ran as the American Independent Party candidate in the presidential election. A right- wing racist, he appealed to the people's fear of big government and made a good showing.
1521. Moon race, Neil Armstrong
July 20, 1969 - Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon, beating the Communists in the moon race and fulfilling Kennedy's goal. Cost $24 billion.
1522. Sunbelt versus Frostbelt
A trend wherein people moved from the northern and eastern states to the south and southwest region from Virginia to California.
1523. Betty Frieden, The Feminine Mystique
1963 - Depicted how difficult a woman's life is because she doesn't think about herself, only her family. It said that middle-class society stifled women and didn't let them use their talents. Attacked the "cult of domesticity."
1524. National Organization for Women (NOW)
Inspired by Betty Frieden, a reform organization that battled for equal rights with men by lobbying and testing laws in court. NOW wanted equal employment opportunities, equal pay, ERA, divorce law changes, and legalized abortion.
1525. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling for equal rights for both sexes. Defeated in the House in 1972.
1526. National Women's Political Caucus
Established by Betty Frieden, encouraged women to seek help or run for political office.
1527. Ralph Nader, Unsafe at Any Speed
1965 - Nader said that poor design and construction of automobiles were the major causes of highway deaths. He upset Congress by asking for legislation regulating car design and creation of national auto safety board, NATSA.
1528. Nixon, "New Federalism"
Slogan which meant returning power to the states, reversing the flow of power and resources from states and communities to Washington, and start power and resources flowing back to people all over America. Involved a 5-year plan to distribute $30 billion of federal revenues to states.
1529. Spiro T. Agnew, his resignation
October, 1973 - Nixon's vice-president resigned and pleaded "no contest" to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland. He was replaced by Gerald R. Ford.
1530. "Revenue Sharing"
1972 - A Nixon program that returned federal funds to the states to use as they saw fit.
1531. Wage and price controls
1971 - To curb inflation, President Nixon froze prices, wages, and revenues for 90 days.
1532. Nixon versus Congress
January, 1973 - Republican party operatives who had broken into the Democratic party facility at the Watergate Hotel convicted of burglary. Investigation of possible White House involvement disclosed existence of Nixon's tapes of meetings, but the President refused to turn over the tapes to Congress. Opposition to Nixon created unity in Congress that allowed passage of legislation Nixon had opposed.
June 17, 1972 - five men arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee's executive quarters in the Watergate Hotel. Two White House aides were indicted; they quit, Senate hearing began in May, 1973, Nixon admitted to complicity in the burglary. In July, 1974, Nixon's impeachment began, so he resign with a disbarment.
1534. Committee for the Reelection of the President (CREEP)
Established in 1971 to help Nixon get reelected. Involved in illegal activities such as the Watergate break-in.
1535. Election of 1972: candidates, issues
People feared that George S. McGovern, the Democratic candidate, was an isolationist because he promised cuts in defense spending. Richard M. Nixon, the Republican, promised an end to the Vietnam War and won by 60.7% of the popular vote.
1536. White House "Plumbers"
Name given to the special investigations committee established along with CREEP in 1971. Its job was to stop the leaking of confidential information to the public and press.
1537. Senator George M. McGovern
Democratic nominee for the 1972 election, from South Dakota. Somewhat of a radical, many voters thought he was a hippie and too supportive of women and militant Blacks. Ran an unsuccessful campaign, hampered by lack of funds.
1538. Senator Edmund Muskie
Senator from Maine, although he was favored to win the Democratic candidacy, he lost to McGovern.
1539. Watergate tapes
Tapes which proved Nixon was involved in the Watergate scandal. Although he withheld them at first, the Supreme Court made Nixon turn over these recordings of the plans for the cover-up of the scandal.
1540. H. R. Haldeman, John D. Ehrlichman, John W. Dean and John Mitchel
Men involved in the Watergate scandal, who took the fall for Nixon. Mitchel was Attorney General at the time.
1541. Impeachment proceedings
Special committee led by Ervin began impeachment talks about Nixon. Impeachment hearing were opened May 9, 1974 against Nixon by the House Judiciary Committee. The Committee recommended 3 articles of impeachment against Nixon: taking part in a criminal conspiracy to obstruct justice, "repeatedly" failing to carry out his constitutional oath, and unconstitutional defiance of committee subpoenas. Nixon resigned on August 9.
1542. SALT I Agreement
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks by Nixon and Brezhnev in Moscow in May, 1972. Limited Anti-Ballistic Missiles to two major departments and 200 missiles.
A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.
1544. China visit, 1972
February 21 - Nixon visited for a week to meet with Chairman Mao Tse-Tung for improved relations with China, Called "ping-pong diplomacy" because Nixon played ping pong with Mao during his visit. Nixon agreed to support China's admission to the United Nations.
1545. Recognition of China
Nixon established a trade policy and recognized the People's Republic of China, which surprised many because China had been an enemy during the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
1546. War Powers Act, 1973
Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress.
1547. Six Day War, 1967
Israel responded to a blockade of the port of Elath on the Gulf of Aqaba by Egypt in June, 1967, by launching attacks on Egypt, and its allies, Jordan and Syria. Won certain territories for defense.
1548. Yom Kippur War, 1973
Frustrated by their losses in the Six-Days War, Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel during the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur on October 6, 1973. Israel counterattacked, won a decisive victory, and had even occupied portions of northern Egypt.
1549. Henry S. Kissinger, "Shuttle Diplomacy"
Policy of this Secretary of State to travel around the world to various nations to discuss and encourage the policy of detente.
1550. Twenty-Fifth Amendment
Made the replacement of a vice president the same as for a Supreme Court justice, i.e., the president nominates someone and Congress decides.
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