1451. Black Power
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
1452. Twenty-Fourth Amendment
1964 - It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.
1453. Watts, Detroit race riots
Watts: August, 1965, the riot began due to the arrest of a Black by a White and resulted in 34 dead, 800 injured, 3500 arrested and $140,000,000 in damages. Detroit: July, 1967, the army was called in to restore order in race riots that resulted in 43 dead and $200,000,000 in damages.
1454. Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders
In 1968, this commission, chaired by Otto Kerner, decided that the race riots were due to the formation of two different American cultures: inner-city Blacks and suburban Whites.
1455. De Facto, De Jure segregation
De Facto means "it is that way because it just is," and De Jure means that there are rules and laws behind it. In 1965, President Johnson said that getting rid of De Jure segregation was not enough.
1456. White Backlash
Resistance to Black demands led by "law and order" advocates whose real purpose was to oppose integration.
1457. Robert Weaver (b. 1907)
Influential Black economist, he served in the Department of the Interior and was Secretary of Housing and Urban Affairs under Lyndon B. Johnson, becoming the first Black Cabinet official in the U.S.
1458. Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993)
In 1967, appointed the first Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led that NAACP's legal defense fund and had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case before the Supreme Court.
1459. Civil Rights Act of 1964, Public Accommodations Section of the Act
This portion of the Act stated that public accommodations could not be segregated and that nobody could be denied access to public accommodation on the basis of race.
1460. Voting Rights Act, 1965
Passed by Congress in 1965, it allowed for supervisors to register Blacks to vote in places where they had not been allowed to vote before.
1461. Civil Rights Act, 1968
Attempted to provide Blacks with equal-opportunity housing.
1462. Geography: North and South Vietnam
North and South Vietnam were split at the 17th parallel. North Vietnam is bordered by the Gulf of Tonkin on the east and Laos on the west. South Vietnam is bordered by Laos and Cambodia on the west. West of Laos and Cambodia lays Thailand.
1463. Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969)
North Vietnamese leader who had lead the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. He had traveled in Europe, was an ardent Communist, and became President of the North Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Often called the George Washington of North Vietnam.
1464. Viet Cong
Name given to the guerilla fighters on the Communist side. The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) were regular troops.
1465. Dien Bien Phu
In 1946, war broke out between communist insurgents in North Vietnam, called the Viet Minh, and the French Colonial government. In the spring of 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French fortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu. The defeat was so disastrous for the French that they decided to withdraw from Vietnam.
1466. Geneva Conference, 1954
French wanted out of Vietnam , the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Minh's government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.
1467. National Liberation Front (NLF)
Official title of the Viet Cong. Created in 1960, they lead an uprising against Diem's repressive regime in the South.
1468. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
August, 1964 - After the U.S. Navy ship Maddux reportedly was fired on, the U.S. Congress passed this resolution which gave the president power to send troops to Vietnam to protect against further North Vietnamese aggression.
1469. Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
An area that both militaries are required to stay out of in order to create a buffer between nations. In Vietnam, a five mile wide DMZ was established between the North and South along the 17th parallel.
1470. Domino Theory
1957 - It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall, producing a domino effect.
1471. Tet Offensive
1968, during Tet, the Vietnam lunar new year - Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army raiding forces attacked provincial capitals throughout Vietnam, even seizing the U.S. embassy for a time. U.S. opinion began turning against the war.
1472. Kent State Incident, Jackson State Incident
Kent State: May 4, 1970 - National Guardsmen opened fire on a group of students protesting the Vietnam War. Jackson State: Police opened fire in a dormitory.
1473. Daniel Ellsberg, Pentagon Papers
Papers were part of a top-secret government study on the Vietnam War and said that the U.S. government had lied to the citizens of the U.S. and the world about its intentions in Vietnam.
1474. My Lai, Lt. Calley
March, 1968 - An American unit destroyed the village of My Lai, killing many women and children. The incident was not revealed to the public until 20 months later. Lt. Calley, who led the patrol, was convicted of murder and sentenced to 10 years for killing 20 people.
1475. Hanoi, Haiphong
The Declaration of Independence by the Vietnamese was proclaimed in Hanoi on September 2, 1945. Haiphong is Hanoi's harbor.
1476. Senator Fullbright
Anti-Vietnam War Senator from Arkansas, he was head of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. In 1966 and 1967, he held a series of hearings to air anti-war sentiments.
1477. Bombing of Laos and Cambodia
March, 1969 - U.S. bombed North Vietnamese positions in Cambodia and Laos. Technically illegal because Cambodia and Laos were neutral, but done because North Vietnam was itself illegally moving its troops through those areas. Not learned of by the American public until July, 1973.
The effort to build up South Vietnamese troops while withdrawing American troops, it was an attempt to turn the war over to the Vietnamese.
1479. Paris Accord, 1973
January 7, 1973 - U.S. signed a peace treaty with North Vietnam and began withdrawing troops. On April 25, 1975, South Vietnam was taken over by North Vietnam, in violation of the treaty.
1480. Election of 1960: issues, candidates, "Missile gap"
Kennedy, the Democrat, won 303 electoral votes, Nixon, the Republican, won 219 electoral votes, Byrd, the Independent, won 15 electoral votes. Kennedy and Nixon split the popular vote almost 50/50, with Kennedy winning by 118,000. The issues were discussed in televised debates. The "Missile gap" referred to the U.S. military claim that the U.S.S.R. had more nuclear missiles that the U.S., creating a "gap" in U.S. defensive capabilities.
1481. "Impeach Earl Warren"
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Earl Warren used the Court's authority to support civil rights and individual liberties. He authored Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas and Roe v. Wade decisions. His liberal attitudes led conservative groups to brand him a communist and lobby for his impeachment.
1482. Miranda Decision, Escobedo Decision
1964 - Miranda held that a person arrested for a crime must be advised of his right to remain silent and to have an attorney before being questioned by the police. Escobedo held that an accused can reassert these rights at any time, even if he had previously agreed to talk to the police.
1483. Baker v. Carr, 1962
The Supreme Court declared that the principle of "one person, one vote" must be following at both state and national levels. The decision required that districts be redrawn so the each representative represented the same number of people.
1484. Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
The Supreme Court held that all defendants in serious criminal cases are entitled to legal counsel, so the state must appoint a free attorney to represent defendants who are too poor to afford one.
1485. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring
An American marine biologist wrote in 1962 about her suspicion that the pesticide DDT, by entering the food chain and eventually concentrating in higher animals, caused reproductive dysfunctions. In 1973, DDT was banned in the U.S. except for use in extreme health emergencies.
1486. New Frontier
The "new" liberal and civil rights ideas advocated by Kennedy, in contrast to Eisenhower's conservative view.
1487. Kennedy and the Steel Price Rollback
Angry at steel companies for cutting wages and increasing prices in the face of his low-inflation plan, Kennedy activated the federal government's anti-trust laws and the FBI. Awed, steel companies cut their prices back for a few days, then raised them again slowly and quietly. Kennedy "jawboned" the steel industry into overturning a price increase after having encouraged labor to lower its wage demands.
1488. Peace Corps., Vista
Established by Congress in September, 1961 under Kennedy, dedicated Americans volunteered to go to about 50 third-world countries and show the impoverished people how to improve their lives.
1489. Berlin Wall
1961 - The Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushev, erected a wall between East and West Berlin to keep people from fleeing from the East, after Kennedy asked for an increase in defense funds to counter Soviet aggression.
1490. Common Market
Popular name for the European Economic Community established in 1951 to encourage greater economic cooperation between the countries of Western Europe and to lower tariffs on trade between its members.
1491. Trade Expansion Act, 1962
October, 1962 - The Act gave the President the power to reduce tariffs in order to promote trade. Kennedy could lower some tariffs by as much as 50%, and, in some cases, he could eliminate them.
1492. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963
Reacting to Soviet nuclear tests, this treaty was signed on August 5, 1963 and prohibited nuclear testing undersea, in air and in space. Only underground testing was permitted. It was signed by all major powers except France and China.
1493. Lee Harvey Oswald, Warren Commission
November, 22, 1963 - Oswald shot Kennedy from a Dallas book depository building, and was later himself killed by Jack Ruby. Chief Justice Earl Warren ruled that they both acted alone.
1494. Bay of Pigs, 1961
A small army of ant-Castro Cuban exiles were trained and financed by the U.S. in the hope their invasion would lead to a popular uprising to overthrow the Communist government. The invasion force landed at the Bay of Pigs in Southern Cuba, but received no popular support and were quickly wiped out by Castro's forces.
1495. United Nations in the Congo, 1960
A Black uprising against the Belgian colonial government in the Congo became increasingly violent with White settlers being raped and butchered. The U.N. sent in troops to try to prevent civil war.
1496. "Flexible Response"
Kennedy abandoned Eisenhower's theory of massive nuclear war in favor of a military that could respond flexibly to any situation at any time, in different ways.
1497. Cuban Missile Crisis, 1963
The Soviet Union was secretly building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, which could have been used for a sneak-attack on the U.S. The U.S. blockaded Cuba until the U.S.S.R. agreed to dismantle the missile silos.
1498. Alliance for Progress
1961 - Formed by Kennedy to build up third-world nations to the point where they could manage themselves.
1499. Dominican Republic, 1965
President Johnson sent 20,000 American troops to the island to keep a leftist government from coming to power.
1500. Salvador Allende
President of Chile from 1970 to 1973, a member of the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a military coup lead by General Augusto Pinochet.
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