1351. Mahatma Gandhi
Great revolutionary who led India to independence from Great Britain through passive resistance and civil disobedience based upon Henry David Thoreau's doctrines.
1352. Dien Bien Phu
France had exercised colonial control of Indochina until WWII. After Japan's defeat in 1945, the Viet Minh seized Hanoi and declared the North an independent republic. War with France broke out in 1946. In the Spring of 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French fortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu. Lead to the withdrawal of France from Indochina.
1353. Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese leader who had lead the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. He had traveled in Europe, educated in Moscow, and was an ardent Communist. Became President of the North Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Often called the George Washington of North Vietnam.
1354. Bricker Amendment
Proposal that international agreements negotiated by the executive branch would become law if and only if they were approved by Congress and didn't conflict with state laws. Isolationist measure, didn't pass.
1355. John Foster Dulles
As Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.
1356. Massive Retaliation
In the 1950's after Stalin died, Dulles and Eisenhower warned the Soviets that if aggression was undertaken, the U.S. would retaliate with its full nuclear arsenal against the Soviet Union itself. However, the U.S. would not start conflicts.
The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
1358. Preemptive Strike
The doctrine of attacking an enemy force before they can attack you.
1359. Nikita Khrushchev, 1955 Geneva Summit
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
1360. Hungarian Revolt
1956 - Hungary tried to overthrow the Communist government, partly encouraged by the U.S. The rebellion was quickly crushed.
1361. Abdul Nasser, Suez Crisis
Egypt's dictator, Abdul Gamal Nasser, a former army officer who had led the coup that overthrew King Farouk, nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, and was attacked by British, French and Israeli forces. The U.S. intervened on behalf of Egypt. Damaged Britain and France's standing as world powers.
1362. Peaceful coexistence
Khrushchev's proposal that the U.S. and U.S.S.R. could compromise and learn to live with each other.
1363. Eisenhower doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
1364. Common Market
Popular name for the European Economic Community established in 1951 to encourage greater economic cooperation between the countries of Western Europe and to lower tariffs on trade between its members.
1365. Organization of American States (OAS)
Founded in 1948 by 21 nations at the Ninth Pa-American Conference, now consists of 32 nations of Central and South America and the U.S. Settled disputes between its members and discouraged foreign intervention in American disputes.
1366. Castro's Revolution
1959 - A band of insurgents led by Fidel Castro succeeded in overthrowing the corrupt government of Juan Baptista, and Cuba became Communist.
1367. Bay of Pigs
1961 - 1400 American-trained Cuban expatriates left from Nicaragua to try to topple Castro's regime, landing at the Bay of Pigs in southern Cuba. They had expected a popular uprising to sweep them to victory, but the local populace refused to support them. When promised U.S. air cover also failed to materialize, the invaders were easily killed or captured by the Cuban forces. Many of the survivors were ransomed back to the U.S. for $64 million. President Kennedy had directed the operation.
1368. Alliance for Progress
1961 - Formed by John F. Kennedy to build up Third World nations to the point where they could manage their own affairs.
1369. Cuban Missile Crisis
October 14-28, 1962 - After discovering that the Russians were building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, the U.S. announced a quarantine of Cuba, which was really a blockade, but couldn't be called that since blockades are a violation of international law. After 6 days of confrontation that led to the brink of nuclear war, Khrushchev backed down and agreed to dismantle the launch sites.
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles, long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe. The reason behind the Cuban Missile Crisis -- Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites for ICBM's in Cuba.
1371. Revenue Act of 1942
Effort to increase tax revenues to cover the cost of WWII by adding additional graduated steps to the income tax and lowering the threshold at which lower income earners began to pay tax.
1372. G.I. Bill of Rights
1944 - Servicemen's Readjustment Act, also called the G.I. Bill of Rights. Granted $13 billion in aid for former servicemen, ranging from educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the readjustment to society after demobilization.
1373. Office of War mobilization and Reconversion
1944 - Directed by James F. Byrnes. Determined whether any prime contract for war production scheduled for termination after WWII should be continued in force.
1374. Extension of OPA vetoed
OPA had controlled wartime prices and a watered-down version was approved by Congress to stay in effect after the war, but Truman vetoed it.
1375. Postwar Inflation
The high volume of U.S. spending during the war, which reached an estimated $341 billion, and pent up consumer demand caused by war-time rationing led to inflation after the war.
1376. Baby Boom
30 million war babies were born between 1942 and 1950.
1377. Employment Act of 1946
Started because of the flood of available workers after WWII. Established the Council of Economic Advisors. declared that the government was committed to maintaining maximum employment.
1378. Taft-Hartley Act
1947 - Senator Robert A. Taft co-authored the labor-Management Relations Act with new Jersey Congressman Fred Allan Hartley, Jr. The act amended the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and imposed certain restrictions of the money and power of labor unions, including a prohibition against mandatory closed shops.
1379. Senator Robert A. Taft
A key Republican leader in the Senate and a supporter of Joseph McCarthy.
1380. Right-to-Work laws
State laws that provide that unions cannot impose a requirement that workers join the union as a condition of their employment.
1381. Election of 1948: candidates, issues
Democrat - Harry Truman
Republican - John Dewey
States' Rights Democrat (Dixiecrat) - Strom Thurmond
Progressive - Henry Wallace
The Democratic party was torn apart by the dispute between the liberal civil rights platform of the majority and the conservative, states' rights views of the southern membership, and the Progressive party pulled away liberal votes as well. Although everyone expected Dewey to win, Truman managed a surprise victory.
1382. Dixiecrats, J. Strom Thurmond
Southern Democrats disgruntled over the strong civil rights proposals of the Democrats' 1948 National Convention. Formed the States' Rights Democratic Party and nominated Thurmond (governor of South Carolina) for president.
1383. Progressive Party, Henry Wallace
Former vice-president under Roosevelt, Wallace ran for president with the Progressive Party, a branch of the Democrats who opposed the Cold War and the policy of containment. He lost but became secretary of commerce under Truman.
1384. Fair Deal
Truman's policy agenda -- he raised the minimum wage from 65 to 75 cents an hour, expanded Social Security benefits to cover 10 million more people, and provided government funding for 100,000 low-income public housing units and for urban renewal.
1385. Americans for Democratic Action (ADA)
An organization for the advancement of liberal causes in the 1940s.
1386. National Security Acts
1947 - Created the cabinet post of Secretary of Defense, the CIA, and the National Security Council. 1949 - Created NATO.
1387. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
Committee in the House of Representatives founded on a temporary basis in 1938 to monitor activities of foreign agents. Made a standing committee in 1945. During World War II it investigated pro-fascist groups, but after the war it turned to investigating alleged communists. From 1947-1949, it conducted a series of sensational investigations into supposed communist infiltration of the U.S. government and Hollywood film industry.
1388. Sen. Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957), McCarthyism
Wisconsin Senator who began sensational campaign in February, 1950 by asserting that the U.S. State Department had been infiltrated by Communists. In 1953 became Chair of the Senate Sub- Committee on Investigations and accused the Army of covering up foreign espionage. The Army-McCarthy Hearings made McCarthy look so foolish that further investigations were halted.
1389. Alger Hiss
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
1390. McCarran Internal Security Act
1950 - Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.
1391. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
1392. Twenty-Second Amendment
Proposed in 1947 and ratified in 1951. It limited the number of terms that a president may serve to two. Was brought on by FDR's 4-term presidency.
1393. Election of 1952: candidates & issues
Republicans - Eisenhower/Nixon, Democrats - Adlai Stevenson
Issues were conservatism and containment of Communism. Republicans won by a landslide.
1394. Ike (Eisenhower) and Modern Republicanism
Conservative about federal spending, liberal about personal freedoms. Believed in a balanced budget and lower taxes, but not in getting rid of existing social and economic legislation.
1395. Fiscal Management
Starting in 1950, the federal government controlled expenditures by regulating the budget, including the deficit.
1396. Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971)
A Protestant minister who, in the 1940's, effected and influenced religion, society and politics in the U.S. Known for liberal philosophy, he believed that each individual had the primary responsibility for creating a good society. Founded the Liberal Party in 1944 and received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964.
1397. Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead
She wrote this novel in 1943 to express her extreme conservative views and her belief that communism was inherently unworkable. Her philosophy was that society functions best when each individual pursues his or her own self-interest, called objectivism.
1398. McCarran-Walter Immigration Act
1952 - Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952, it kept limited immigration based on ethnicity, but made allowances in the quotas for persons displaced by WWII and allowed increased immigration of European refugees. Tried to keep people from Communist countries from coming to the U.S. People suspected of being Communists could be refused entry or deported.
1399. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW)
Created by Republican Congress members under Ms. Overta Culp Hobby of Texas. Regulated through committees.
1400. Interstate Highways Act
1944 - Began federal funding for an interstate highway system.
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