1251. Schecter Poultry Corp. v. U.S.
May, 1935 - The U.S. Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. It held that Condress had improperly delegated legislative authority to the National Industrial Recovery Administration and that the federal government had exceeded its jurisduction because Schecter was not engaged in interstate commerce.
1252. Butler case
1936 - Declared AAA unconstitutional because it involved Congress levying a tax against the general wellfare.
1253. NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp.
April 1937 - Sumpreme Court upheld the Wagner Act, ensuring the right to unionize, in a 5 to 4 decision. This decision signaled a change in the Court's attitude towards support of the New Deal and lead FDR to abandon his court-packing plan.
1254. West Coast Hotel v. Parrish
1937 - Supreme Court upheld the Washington state minum wage statute.
1255. Darby Lumber Co. case
1941 - Overruled the Hamme case of 1918 by upholding the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
1256. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp. case
1936 - Upheld embargo impossed on arms destined for nations at war in the "Chaco War" that had broken out in 1932 between Bolivia and Paraguay.
1257. Montevideo Conference
The first of several Pan-America conferences held during the period between World War I and World War II concerning mutual defense and corporate between the countries of Latin America. The U.S. renounced the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries.
1258. Rio de Janeiro Conference
1933 - Delegation of 21 Latin American leaders, including Summer Will and Aswalina Avanna. Led to the break in diplomatic relations between the U.S. and the Latin American powers.
1259. Buenos Aires Conference
1936 - The U.S. agreed to submit all disputes from the Americas to arbitration.
1260. Lima Conference
1938 - Last of the Pan-American conferences held before the outbreak of World War II. Issued the Declaration of Lima asserting the unity of the Latin American nations and their determination to resist al forms of foreign agression.
1261. Declaration of Panama
1939 - Latin American governments drew a security line around the Western hemisphere and warned away foreign agressors.
1262. Act of Havana
1940 - Approved by the 21 delegates of the Pan-American Union. Declared that any Latin American nation was permitted, in the name of defense, to take over and administer any European possession in the New World.
1263. Jones Act
1916 - Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.
1264. Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934, Philippines
In 1933 the U.S. had proposed granting the Philippines independence in 12 years while retaining its military bases there. The Philippines rejected the offer and asked for immediate commonwealth status with independence by 1946. The U.S. accepted their offer in the Tydings-McDuffie Act.
1265. Nye Committee
Gerald Nye of North Dakota believed that the U.S. should stay out of foreign wars.
1266. "Merchants of Death"
Liberal isolationists' term for companies which manufactured armaments. They felt that the companies were undermining national interests by assisting agressor nations.
1267. Neutrality legislation
1935 - Upon the outbreak of war, all American exports would be embargoed for 6 months.
1936 - Gave the president the authority to determine when a state of war existed and prohibited loans to beligerents.
1937 - Gave the president the authority to determine whether a civil war was a threat to world peace and prohibited arms sales to beligerents.
1268. Spanish Civil War (1936-1935), Franco
Spain had established a leftist, democratic government in the 1930s. In July, 1936, Gen. Fransisco Franco and other army leaders staged a coup and installed a right-wing fascist government, touching off a civil war between loyalist Republican forces (aided by Russia) and Franco's Fascist party (aided by Mussolini and Hitler).
Mussolini invaded, conquering it in 1936. The League of Nations failed to take any effective action against Mussolini, and the U.S. just looked on.
1270. Mussolini (1883-1945)
Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922-1943. Wanted to recreate the Roman Empire.
1271. Japan attacks China, Chiang Kai-Shek
Chinese leader Kai-Shek defeated the Communists in China, sending them back to Russia and instituting the Kuomintang government. Then in 1931, Japan seized Manchuria from China.
1272. Panay Incident
1937 - On the Yantze River in China, Japanese aircraft sank an American gunboat escorting tankers. The U.S. accepted Japan's appologies.
1273. Quarantine Speech
1937 - In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist agression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine agressor nations.
1274. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), Nazism
German facist dictator. Leader of the National Socialist Workers Party, or Nazis. Elected Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he quickly established himself as an absolute dictator.
1275. Munich Conference, appeasement, Neville Chamberlain
1938 - Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, a portion of Czechoslovakia whose inhabitents were mostly German-speaking. On Sept. 29, Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain signed the Munich Pact, which gave Germany the Sudetenland. British Prime Minister Chamberlain justified the pact with the belief that appeasing Germany would prevent war.
1276. Austria annexed
March 12, 1938 - After the Austrian leader resigned under growing Nazi pressure, German troops set up a government called the Ansehluss, which was a union of Germany and Austria.
1277. Nonagression pact between Germany and U.S.S.R.
August 23, 1939 - Germany and Russia agreed not to attack each other, which allowed Hitler to open up a second front in the West without worrying about defending against Russia. Granted Western Poland ot Germany, but allowed Russia to occupy Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Eastern Poland. Hitler intended to break the pact.
1278. Invasion of Poland, Blitzkrieg
September, 1939 - Germany used series of "lightning campaigns" to conquer Poland. The invasion caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
1279. Axis Powers
A series of treaties in 1936 and 37 between Germany, Italy, and Japan created what was called the "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis." The coutries were thereafter refered to as the Axis Powers.
1280. "Cash and carry" revision of neutrality
Stated the warring nations wishing to trade with the U.S. would have to pay cash and carry the goods away in their own ships. Benefitted the Allies, since German ships could not reach the U.S. due to the Allied blockades.
1281. Fall of France
Summer, 1941 - Germany invaded France and set up the Vichey government, which lasted until the Allies invaded in 1944.
1282. America First Committee
1940 - Formed by die-hard isolationists who feared the U.S. going to war.
1283. Isolationism, Charles Lindbergh
Lindbergh, known for making the first solo flight across the Atlantic, became politically controversial because he was an isolationist and pro-Germany.
1284. Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
1940 - Formed by isolationists who believed that the U.S. could avoid going to war by giving aid in the form of supplies and money to the Allies, who would fight the war for us.
1285. Smith Act
Required fingerprinting and registering of all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.
1286. Tojo (Hideki)
Prime Minister of Japan (1941-1944) and leading advocate of Japanese military conquest during World War II.
1287. Destroyer Deal
1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. (Destroyers were major warships that made up the bulk of most countries' navies.) Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
1288. Election of 1940: candidates, issues
Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Republican - Wendel Wrillkie (lost by almost 5 million votes). The issue was the New Deal, about which there was a major debate.
1289. "Lend lease"
March 1941 - Authorized the president to transfer, lend, or lease any article of defense equipment
ot any government whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the U.S. Allowed the U.S.
to send supplies and ammunition to the Allies without technically becoming a co-belligerent.
1290. Atlantic Charter
August 1941 - Drawn up br FDR and Churchill with eight main principles:
1291. Pearl Harbor
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
1292. Japanese relocation
The bombing of Pearl Harbor created widespread fear that the Japanese living in the U.S. were actually spies. FDR issued executive order 9066, which moved all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living on the west coast of the U.S. into internment camps in the interior of the U.S.
1293. Bond drives
Celebrities and government representatives traveled around the U.S. selling government bonds ot raise money for the war effort. Extremely successful in raising funds.
1294. War Production Board
Converted factories from civilian to military production. Manufacturing output tripled.
1295. War Labor Board
Acted as a supreme court for labor cases. Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes.
1296. Office of Price Administration (OPA)
Government agency which successful combatted inflation by fixing price ceilings on commodities and introducing rationing programs during World War II.
1297. General Dwight D. Eisenhower (1870-1969)
Served as the supreme commander of the western Allied forces and became chief of staff in 1941. Sent to Great Britain in 1942 as the U.S. commander in Europe.
1298. General Douglas MacArthur
Military governor of the Philippines, which Japan invaded a few days after the Pearl Harbor attack. MacArthur escaped to Australia in March 1942 and was appointed supreme commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific. Recieved the Medal of Honor.
1299. Genocide, "Final Solution"
Genocide is destruction of a racial group. Hitler's "Final Solution" was the genocide of non-Aryan peoples.
1300. Second front
The Russians were suffering heavy casualties fighting the German invasion of Russia. Stalin urged the Allies to open a "second front" in the west to relieve the pressure on the Russians. The Allies did so, but only after a long delay.
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