951. Rough Riders, San Juan Hill
1898 - Theodore Roosevelt formed the Rough Riders (volunteers) to fight in the Spanish- American War in Cuba. They charged up San Juan Hill during the battle of Santiago. It made Roosevelt popular.
952. Treaty of Paris
Approved by the Senate on February 6, 1898, it ended the Spanish-American War. The U.S. gained Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
953. American Anti-Imperialist League
A league containing anti-imperialist groups; it was never strong due to differences on domestic issues. Isolationists.
954. Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, Cuba
The U.S. acquired these territories from Spain through the Treaty of Paris (1898), which ended the Spanish-American War.
955. Walter Reed
Discovered that the mosquito transmitted yellow fever and developed a cure. Yellow fever was the leading cause of death of American troops in the Spanish-American War.
956. Insular cases
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
957. Teller Amendment
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but the Teller Amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
958. Platt Amendment
A rider to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901, it specified the conditions under which the U.S. could intervene in Cuba's internal affairs, and provided that Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation that might impair its independence. Its provisions where later incorporated into the Cuban Constitution.
A weak country under the control and protection of a stronger country. Puerto Rico, Cuba, etc. were protectorates of the U.S.
960. Aguinaldo, Philippine Insurrection
Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964) led a Filipino insurrection against the Spanish in 1896 and assisted the U.S. invasion. He served as leader of the provisional government but was removed by the U.S. because he wanted to make the Philippines independent before the U.S. felt it was ready for independence.
961. Secretary of State John Hay, Open Door notes
September, 1899 - Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
962. Spheres of influence
Region in which political and economic control is exerted by on European nation to the exclusion of all others. Spheres of influence appeared primarily in the East, and also in Africa.
963. Boxer Rebellion
1900 - a secret Chinese society called the Boxers because their symbol was a fist revolted against foreigners in their midst and laid siege to foreign legislations in Beijing.
In the 1920's, China wated an end to the exemption of foreigners accused of crimes from China's legal jurisdiction.
965. Most Favored Nation Clause
Part of RTA Act in 1834, allowed a nation to make a special agreement with another nation and give them a preferential low tariff rate.
966. Election of 1900: candidates, issues
Republican, William McKinley defeated Democrate, Williams Bryan. The issue was imperialism.
967. Roosevelt's Big Stick Diplomacy
Roosevelt said, "walk softly and carry a big stick." In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen. It was his foreign policy in Latin America.
968. U.S.S. Oregon
Warship involved in Spanish-American blockade in Cuba in 1898. Went from Cuba to the Philippines by going around the Southern tip of South America. Showed that we need a better route between the Atlantic and the Pacific.
969. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Abrogated by the U.S. in 1881.
970. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.
971. Hay-Herran Treaty
Kept the purchase price of the canal strip in Panama the same but enlarged the area from 6 to 10 miles.
972. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.
973. Panama Revolution
The Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia refused, so U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.
974. Panama Canal
Buit to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster.
975. Goethals and Gorgas
1906 - Army colonels who supervised the construction of the Panama Canal.
976. Venezuelan Crisis
1902 - England, Germany and Italy had blockaded Venezuelan ports because Latin American countries failed to make payments on debts owed to foreign banks. U.S. invoked the Monroe Doctrine and pressured the European powers to back off.
977. Drago Doctrine
Argentine jurist, Luis Drago, proposed that European countries could not use force to collect debts owed by countries in the Americas. They could not blockade South American ports. Adopted as part of the Hague Convention in 1907.
978. Roosevelt Corollary
U.S. would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
979. "Colossus of the North"
1906 - Relations between U.S. and Canada including a reciprocal trade agreement. Tight relations made the U.S. and Canada a "Colossus."
980. Dominican Republic
In 1905, the U.S. imposed financial restrictions upon this Caribbean nation. Part of making sure Latin America traded with the U.S. and not Europe.
981. Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth
Japan had attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia's refusal to withdraw its troops from Mancharia after the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) War fought mainly in Korea. Japan victorious, the U.S. mediated the end of the war. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for the mediation.
982. San Francisco School Board Incident
1906 - Racist schools segregated Chinese, Korean and Japanese students because of anti-oriental sentiment in California.
983. Elihu Root
Secretary of War under Roosevelt, he reorganized and monderized the U.S. Army. Later served as ambassador for the U.S. and won the 1912 Nobel Peace Prize.
984. Gentlemen's Agreement
In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emmigration of its nationals to the U.S.
985. Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
986. Root-Takahira Agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
987. Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
988. Democracy, efficiency, pragmatism
Three characteristics that the U.S. felt made them superior to other countries. Many U.S. cities in the 1900 to 1920 instituted modern "scientific" political systems, such as the use of professional city managers, to replace inefficient traditional machine politics. The U.S. tried to spread there ideas abroad.
Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen, etc. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
990. Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903), Wealth Against Commonwealth
American writer, he won fame for revealing illegal business practices in the U.S. in the late 1800's. Said many corporations put their interest above the good of the workers. Muckraker novel.
991. Thorstien Velben, The Theory of the Leisure Class
An economist, he believed that society was always evolving, but not that the wealthiest members of society were the "fittest." Attacked the behavior of the wealthy. Muckraker novel.
992. Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
Early 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.
993. Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936), The Shame of the Cities
A muckraker novel concerning the poor living conditions in the cities.
994. Frank Norris (1870-1902), The Octopus
A leader of the naturalism movement in literature, he believed that a novel should serve a moral purpose. Wrote The Octopus in 1901 about how railroads controlled the lives of a group of California farmers. A muckraker novel.
995. Ida Tarbell (1857-1944), History of the Standard Oil Company
This 1904 book exposed the monpolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company. Strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies. A muckraker novel.
996. John Spargo, The Bitter Cry of the Children
Journalist and novelist, he wrote of the unfair treatment of children used as child labor. Stressed better education, better schools and teachers. A muckraker novel.
997. David Graham Phillips, The Treason of the Senate
A muckraker novel, it publicized corruption in the Senate after doing research on government leaders.
998. Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935), Women and Economics
She urged women to work outside the home to gain economic independence. Attacked the traditional role of homemaker for women.
999. John Dewey (1859-1952): the school and society, "progressive education", "learning by doing"
American philosopher and educator, he led the philosophical movement called Pragmatism. Influenced by evolution, he believed that only reason and knowledge could be used to solve problems. Wanted educational reforms.
1000. Oliver Wendel Holmes, Jr.
A famous justice of the Supreme Court during the early 1900s. Called the "Great Dissenter" because he spoke out against the inposition of national regulations and standards, and supported the states' rights to experiment with social legislation.
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