801. "New Imigration"
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
802. Dillingham Commission Report
1911 - Congressional commission set up to investigate demands for immigration restriction. It's report was a list of complains against the "new immigrants."
803. Streetcar suburbs
The appearance of the streetcar made living within the heart of the city unnecessary. People began moving to the edges of the cities and commuting to work by streetcar. Led to growth of suburbs.
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.
805. Jane Addams, Hull House
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
806. Denis Kearney
Irish immigrant who settled in San Fransicso and fought for workers rights. He led strikes in protest of the growing number of imported Chineseworkers who worked for less than the Americans. Founded the Workingman's Party, which was later absorbed into the Granger movement.
807. Chinese Exclusion Law
1882 - Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further immigration of Chinese.
Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immagrants who
would work for less pay.
808. American Protective Association
A Nativist group of the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the U.S.
809. Literacy tests
Immigrants were required to pass a literacy test in order to gain citizenship. Many immigrants were uneducated or non-English-speakers, so they could not pass. Meant to discourage immigration.
810. James Bryce, The American Commonwealth
Opposed the Nativist sentiment and promoted the "melting pot" idea of American culture.
811. John A. Roebling (1806-1869), Brooklyn Bridge
Roebling pioneered the development of suspension bridges and designed the Brooklyn Bridge, but died before its construction was completed.
812. Louis Sullivan (1856-1914)
Known as the father of the skyscraper because he designed the first steel-skeleton skyscraper. Mentor of Frank Lloyd Wright.
813. Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
814. Ashcan School
Also known as The Eight, a group of American Naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they beleived in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the first art show in the U.S.
815. Armory Show
1913 - The first art show in the U.S., organized by the Ashcan School. Was most Americans first exposure to European Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art, and caused a modernist revolution in American art.
816. Anthony Comstock (1844-1915)
Social reformer who worked against obscenity.
817. Charles Darwin, Origin of Species
Presented the theory of evolution, which proposed that creation was an ongoing process in which mutation and natural selection constantly give rise to new species. Sparked a long-running religious debate over the issue of creation.
818. Social Darwinism
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
819. Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), The Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.
820. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
British, developed a system of philosophy based on the theory of evolution, believed in the primacy of personal freedom and reasoned thinking. Sought to develop a system whereby all human endeavours could be explained rationally and scientifically.
821. William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other
Economist and sociologist.
822. Henry Ward Beecher (1813-1889)
Minister who worked against slavery in Kansas Border War, promoted civil service reform.
823. Rev. Russel Conwell, "Acres of Diamonds"
Baptist preacher whose famous speech said that hard work and thrift would lead to success.
824. Dwight L. Moody (1837-1899)
Evangelist who preached the social gospel.
825. Rev. Josiah Strong
Enivisioned a "final competition of races," in which the Anglo-Saxons would emerge victorious.
826. Lester Frank Ward
Sociologist who attacked social Darwinism in his book, Dynamic Sociology.
827. Social gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
828. Salvation Army, YMCA
Provided food, housing, and supplies for the poor and unemployed.
829. Walter Rauschenbusch
New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.
830. Washington Gladden
Congregationalist minister who followed the social gospel and supported social reform. A prolific writer whose newspaper cloumns and many books made him a national leader of the Social gospel movement.
831. Rerum Novarum
1891 - Pope Leo XII's call to the Catholic Church to work to alleviate social problems such as poverty.
832. Charles Sheldon, In His Steps Proofed Through Here
A very popular collection of sermons which encouraged young people to emulate Christ.
833. Mary Baker Eddy (1871-1910)
Founded the Church of Christian Scientists and set forth the basic doctrine of Christian Science.
834. Chautauqua Movement
One of the first adult education programs. Started in 1874 as a summer training program for Sunday School teachers, it developed into a travelling lecture series and adult summer school which traversed the country providing religious and secular education though lectures and classes.
835. Johns Hopkins University
A private university which emphasized pure research. It's entrance requirements were unusually strict -- applicants needed to have already earned a college degree elsewhere in order to enroll.
836. Charles W. Elliot, Harvard University
He was the president of Harvard University, and started the policy of offering elective classes in addition to the required classes.
837. Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903)
America's greatest theoretical scientist, he studied thermodynamics and physical chemistry.
838. Morril Act
1862 - Set aside public land in each state to be used for building colleges.
839. Land grant colleges: A&M, A&T, A&I
These were colleges built on the land designated by the Morril Act of 1862.
840. Hatch Act
1887 - Provided for agricultural experimentation stations in every state to improve farming techniques.
841. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backwards, 2000-1887
1888 - Utopian novel which predicted the U.S. woudl become a socialist state in which the government would own and oversee the means of production and would unite all people under moral laws.
842. Henry George, Progress and Poverty
Said that poverty was the inevitable side-effect of progress.
843. The single tax
A flat tax proposed by Henry George. (A flat tax is one in which every person pays the same amount, regardless of whether they are rich or poor.)
844. "Gilded Age"
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
845. Nouveau riche
French for "new rich." Refered to people who had become rich through business rather than through having been born into a rich family. The nouveau riche made up much of the American upper classof the late 1800s.
846. William James
Developed the philosophy of pragmatism. One of the founders of modern psychology, and the first to attempt to apply psychology as a science rather than a philosophy.
A philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.
848. Edwin Lawrence Godkin (1831-1902), editor of The Nation
Political writer who founded The Nation magazine, which called for reform.
849. William Dean Howells (1837-1920)
Editor of the Atlantic Monthly, and a champion of the realist movement in fiction writing.
850. Henry James (1843-1916)
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn of the Screw."
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